Karber:Umut Akkoç/Etimoloji

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  A
  • adir "fire": from PIE base *āter- "fire."
Cognates: cf. Avestan ātar-, Old Persian ātarş, Sanskrit atharvan, Latin āter, Armenian airel, Irish áith, Welsh odyn, Umbrian atru "fire."
English Cognate: atrium (from Latin), atrocity (from Latin)
Source: Nişanyan, Watkins p.5
  • amnan "summer": from PIE base *sem- "half, season."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit sama "season, half-year," Avestan hama "in summer," Armenian amarn "summer," Old Irish sam, O.Welsh ham, Welsh haf "summer."
English Cognate: summer
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.75
  • ameyiş "come": from PIE base *gwem- "to go, come."
Cognates: cf. Avestan jamaiti "goes," Sanskrit. gamati "he goes," Tocharian kakmu "come," Lith. gemu "to be born," Greek bainein "to go, walk, step," Latin venire "to come." (see also "gam" entry.)
English Cognate: come
Not: Related to the word "gam."
Source: Cheung p.100, Etymonline, Watkins p.33
  • amartiş "count": from PIE base *(s)mer- "to remember."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit smar, Avestan (š)mar "to remember," Old High German mornen, Gothic maurnan "to mourn," Old Norse morna "to pine away."
English Cognate: mourn, memory (from Latin), remember (from Latin), memorandum (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.138, Watkins p.80
  • asmen, asmin "sky": from PIE base *ekmon- "stone."
Cognates: cf. Avestan asman, Sanskrit. aśman, Greek akmōn, Lithuanian akmuo, Latvian akmens, Russian kamen', Polish kamień, Hittite aku, Gaulish acaunum "stone."
English Cognate: hammer
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.2
  • aste, este "bone": from PIE base *ast/*ost- "bone."
Cognates: cf. Avestan ascu- "shinbone," Sanskrit asthi, Hittite hashtai-, Greek osteon Armenian oskr "bone;" Greek ostrakon "oyster, shell;" Welsh asgwrn "bone."
English Cognate: ossify (from Latin), osseous (from Greek), oyster (from Greek), ostracize (from Greek), osteology (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.61
  • asnaw "swim": from PIE base *(s)na- "to swim, to flow."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit snati "bathes," Latin nare "to swim," Armenian nay "wet, liquid," Greek notios "damp, moist," nao "I flow;" Middle Irish snaim "I swim."
English Cognate: natatorium
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.338, Watkins p.81
  • astor "horse": from PIE base *ekwo- "horse."
Cognates: cf. Avestan asva- Sanskrit açva- Greek hippos, Latin equus, Old Irish ech, Gothic aihwa-, Hittite aśuwas, Armenian ēš, Welsh ebol, Irish each, Thracian esvas, Lycian esbe "horse."
English Cognate: N/A (Old English eoh, replaced by horse), hippodrome (from Greek), equine (from Latin),
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.23
Note: The word "astor" has two parts asa + tere. The "asa" part comes from the PIE *ekwo-, "ter" parts comes from "-tere", the same suffix that creates comparatives in Zazaki like gırd and gırder. Astor originally means "more or less a horse" used for donkey word. Later in Zazaki, it somehow becomes the name for horse. In Sogdian, we have a similar construction for mule. It is "heretere" (here+ tere), means more or less a donkey.
  • astare, estere "star": from PIE base *ster- "star."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit. star-, Hittite shittar, Greek aster, astron, Latin stella, Breton sterenn, Welsh seren, Old Norse stjarna, Old Frisian stera, Dutch ster, Old High German sterro, German stern, Gothic stairno "star."
English Cognate: star, stellar (from Latin), asterisk (from Greek), asteroid (from Greek), astronot (from Greek), astronomy (from Greek), astrology (from Greek), Esther (from Old Persian), disaster (from Middle French)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.86
  • awe "water": from PIE base ap- "water" (not from PIE base *akwa- "water.")
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit. ap, Avestan ap, Old Persian ap, New persian ab, Kurdish aw "water."
Source:Watkins p.4
  B
  • bexş "to donate": from PIE base *bhag- "to share out, apportion, distribute."
Cognates: cf. Avestan bakhsh "to give," Sanskrit bhajati "assigns, allots, apportions, enjoys, loves;" bhagah "allotter, distributor, master, lord;" bhaksati "eats, drinks, enjoys;" Persian bakhshidan "to give."
English Cognates: -phagous (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p. 5, Watkins p. 7
  • bend "band": from PIE base *bhendh- "to bind."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit bandhah "a tying, bandage," Avestan band- "to bind," Old Persian band "to bind," Gothic bandi "that which binds; Middle Irish bainna "bracelet."
English Cognates: band, bond, bind, bundle
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p. 5, Watkins p. 10
  • ber "door": from PIE base *dhwer-/*dhwor- "a doorway, a door, a gate."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit dvárah "door, gate," Old Persian duvara- "door," Greek thura, Latin foris, Gaulish doro "mouth," Gothic dauro "gate," Old Prussian dwaris "gate," Russian dver' "a door."
English Cognate: door
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p. 20
  • berdiş "take, carry": from PIE base *bher- "to bear, to carry, to take."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit bharati "carries;" Avestan baraiti "carries;" Old Persian barantiy "they carry;" Armenian berem "I carry;" Greek pherein "to carry;" Old Irish beru/berim "I catch, I bring forth;" Gothic bairan "to carry;" Old English and Old High German beran, Old Norsk bera "barrow;" Russian brat' "to take," bremya "a burden."
English Cognates: bear, birth, burden, bring, infer (from Latin), prefer (from Latin), suffer (from Latin), transfer (from Latin), refer (from Latin), offer (from Latin), fertile (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p. 10
  • bermayîş "cry": from PIE base *bhrem- "to cry."
Cognates: cf. Middle Persian bram- "to cry," Middle Welsh bref- "to roar" Polsih brzmie "I sound, buzz;" New High German barmen "to complain, to moan" Latin fremo "mumble, moan."
English Cognates: N/A, (barmen in Old English)
Source: Cheung p. 24
  • berz "high": from PIE base *bhrgh "high."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit bhrant-, Avestan brzant- "high," German burg "castle," Gothic baurgs "city," Welsh bera "stack, pyramid," Greek Pergamos, name of the citadel of Troy.
English Cognate: borough, burg, iceberg, bourgeois (from Latin), burglar (from Latin), fort (from Latin), fortis (from Latin), force (from Latin), fortify (from Latin), effort (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p. 11
  • bestiş "to bind": from PIE base *bhendh- "to bind."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit badhnati "binds," Avestan band- "to bind," Old Persian band "to bind," Gothic bindan, Old High German bintan, " Lithuanian bendras "partner."
English Cognates: bind, band, bond, bundle
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p. 5, Watkins p. 10
  • bin "bottom": from PIE base *bhu(n)dh- "bottom"
Cognates: cf. Avestan buna- "bottom," Sanskrit budhnah, Greek pythmen "foundation," Latin fundus "bottom, piece of land, farm," Old Irish bond "sole of the foot"
English Cognates: bottom, fund (from Latin), found (from Latin), fundamental (from Latin), profound (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p. 13
  • bîyayîş "become": from PIE base *bheu- "grow, come into being, become."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit bhavah "becoming," Avestan bauu- "become, to be;" Old Persian bav- "become, to become;" Old High German bim "I am," Latin fui "I was."
English Cognates: become, be, future (from Latin), physic (from Greek), phyto- (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p. 17, Watkins p. 11
  • biz "buck, goat": from PIE base *bhugo "goat."
Cognates: cf. Avestan buza "buck, goat;" Armenian buc "lamb," Irish boc, Welsh bwch, Middle Dutch boc, Old High German boc, Old Norse bokkr "goat, buck."
English Cognates: buck
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p. 13
  • bira "brother": from PIE base *bhrater "brother."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit bhrátár-, Old Persian brata, Greek phratér, Latin frater, Old Iranian brathir, Goth. bróþar, Old Prussian brati "brother."
English Cognates: brother, fraternity (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p. 12
  C
  • cawitiş "chewing": from PIE base *gyeu- "to chew."
Cognates: cf. Middle Persian jw, Russian zuju, Old High German kewa, Old English ceowan "chew."
English Cognate: chew
Source: Cheung p. 226, Watkins p.35
  • cîger "liver": from PIE base *yēkwr "liver."
Cognates: cf. Avestan yākarə, Sanskrit yaknas, Latin jecur, Lithuanian aknas, Russian ikra, Greek hēpar "liver."
English Cognate: hepatitis (a medical term from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.102
  • ciwan "young": from PIE base *yeu- "vital force, youthful vigor."
Cognates: cf. Avestan yavān-, Old Persian yawān/yuwān, Sanskrit yuva, Latin juvenis, Lithuanian jaunas, Old High German jung, German jung, Gothic juggs, Russian junyj, Old Irish oac, Welsh ieuanc "young."
English Cognate: young, juvenile (from Latin), rejuvenate (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.103
  • ciwamerd, cumerd "young man": from PIE bases of *yeu- "vital force, youthful vigor" and *mrtro- "to die."
Cognates: Persian cıwanmerd.
English Cognate: N/A (young and mortal as separate words)
Source: Nişanyan
  • cînî "woman": from PIE base *gwen- "woman, wife."
Cognates: cf. Avestan jainish "wife;" Sanskrit janis "a woman," gná "wife of a god, a goddess;" Greek gyné "a woman, a wife;" Gaelic bean "woman;" Armenian kin "woman;" Old Prussian genna "woman;" Gothic qino "a woman, wife; qéns "a queen."
English Cognate: queen, gynecology (from Greek), polygyny (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.34
  • ciwîyayış, cinde "living", "alive": from PIE base *gweie- "to live."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit jivah "alive, living;" Old Persian *jivaka- "alive," Greek bios "life, Old English cwic "alive;" Latin vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" Middle Persian zhiwak "alive;" Lithuanian gyvas "living, alive;" Old Irish bethu "life," bith "age;" Welsh byd "world," Old Frisian quik, Old Norse kvikr "living, alive," Old High German quec "lively."
English Cognate: quick, bio- (from Greek), zoo (from Greek), zodiac (from Greek), azote (from Greek), vital (from Latin), viva (from Latin),
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.33
  Ç
  • ça "where": from PIE interrogative base *kwi- / *kwo-.
Cognates: Latin ubi, Old English hwaer "where."
English Cognate: where, ubiquity (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.46
  • çar "four": from PIE base *kwetwor "four."
Cognates: cf. Avestan čathwaro, Old Persian čatvar, Sanskrit čatvarah, Greek tetra, Latin quattuor, Oscan petora, Lithuanian keturi, Old Irish cethir, Welsh petguar "four."
English Cognate: four, quart (from Latin), quarter (from Latin), quadroon (from Latin), quarto (from Latin), quadricentenary (from Latin), quarantine (from Latin), quarrel (from Latin), quarry (from Latin), quadrum (from Latin), quadruple (from Latin), quadrillion (from Latin), trapezium (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.45
  • çarnayiş "to turn, walk around": from PIE base *kwel- "wheel, circle."
Please see the çerq entry.
Source: Cheung p.34
  • çend "how much": from PIE interrogative base *kwi- / *kwo-.
Cognates: Latin quot "how much."
English Cognate: quote (from Latin), quotient (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.46
  • çenge, çene "chin": from PIE base *genw- "chin, jawbone."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian çanu-, German kinn "chin."
English Cognate: chin
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.26
  • çerayiş "pasture, to graze": from PIE base *kwel- "wheel, circle."
Please see the çerq entry.
Source: Cheung p.34
  • çerq "wheel": from PIE base *kwel, *kwelkwo "wheel, circle."
Cognates: cf. Avestan čaraiti "applies himself," č'axra "chariot, wagon;" Sanskrit čakram "circle, wheel," carati "he moves, wanders;" Greek polos "a round axis" (PIE *kw- becomes Gk. p- before some vowels) polein "move around;" Latin colere "to frequent, dwell in, to cultivate, move around," cultus "tended, cultivated," hence also "polished," colonus "husbandman, tenant farmer, settler, colonist;" Lithuanian kelias "a road, a way;" Old Norse hvel, Old English hweol "wheel;" Old Russian, Polish kolo, Russian koleso "a wheel.
English Cognates: wheel, colony (from Latin), cult (from Latin), cultivate (from Latin), culture (from Latin), cycle (from Greek), cyclo- (from Greek), bicycle (from Greek), encyclical (from Greek), chakra (from Sanskrit),
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.45
  • çewres "fourty": from PIE base *kwetwores "fourty."
Cognates: Sanskrit catvārinśat, Greek tessarákonta, Latin quadrāgintā "forty."
English Cognate: fourty
Source: Watkins p.45
  • çînayîş "slay, smite": from PIE interrogative base *gwhen- "smite, slay.".
Cognates: Avestan jan "to kill, to slay;" Old Persian jan "to kill, to slay;" Sanskrit han "to kill, to slay;" Greek phonos "killer," Latin de-fen-ti "beats of, defend;" Armenian çn-em "I slay", Hittite kuen "slays," Irish gon-im "I slay."
English Cognate: bane, gun (from Old Norse), autobahn (from German), fence (from Latin), offense (from Latin), defense (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Fortson p.53, Watkins p.35
  • çi "what": from PIE interrogative base *kwi- / *kwo-.
Cognates: Latin quad, Old Norse hvat, Danish hvad, Dutch wat, Old High German hwaz, German was, Gothic hva "what."
English Cognate: what
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.46
  • çira "why": from PIE interrogative base *kwi- / *kwo-.
Cognates: Latin qur, Old Norse hvi "why."
English Cognate: why
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.46
  D
  • dayiş "giving": from PIE base *do- "to give."
Cognates: cf. Avestan "to bestow, place upon," Old Persian "let him give," Sanskrit dadati "gives," Greek didomi, didonai, "to give, offer," Old Irish dan "gift, talent."
English Cognates: data (from Latin), date (from Latin), dative (from Latin), add (from Latin), edition (from Latin), render (from Latin), rent (from Latin), donate (from Latin), pardon (from Latin), condone (from Latin), dose (from Greek), anecdote (from Greek), antidote (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Cheung p.44, Nişanyan, Watkins p.21
  • dam "home, barn": from PIE base *dem- "house, household."
Cognates: cf. Avestan demana- "house;" Sanskrit damah "house;" Greek domos "house," despotes "master, lord;" Latin dominus "master of a household;" Russian dom "house;" Lithuanian dimstis "enclosed court, property;" Old English timber "building, structure."
English Cognates: timber, dome (from Latin), domestic (from Latin), domicile (from Latin), dame (from Latin), danger (from Latin), domain (from Latin), dominate (from Latin), dominion (from Latin), dungeon (from Latin), madame (from Latin), Madonna (from Latin), despot (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.21
  • dar "tree": from PIE base *deru- "tree, oak, firm, solid, steadfast"
Cognates: cf. Avestan dāru- Sanskrit dru "tree, wood," Greek drys "oak," doru "spear;" Serbian drvo "tree," drva "wood;" Russian drevo "tree, wood;" Czech drva; Polish drwa "wood;" Lithuanian derva "pine wood;" Old Irish daur, Welsh derwen "oak," Albanian drusk "oak" Old Frisian tre, Old Norsk tre, Gothic triu "tree."
English Cognate: tree, tray, trough, tar, endure (From Latin), obdurate (From Latin), duress (From Latin), drupe (from Greek), dryad (from Greek), dendrite (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.16
  • -dar (in compound words like serdar, brindar) "to hold an occupation or feeling": from PIE base *dher(e)- "to hold, support."
Please see the darayış, we-darayış entry.
Source:Watkins p.18
  • darayiş, we-darayiş "to hold, to hang up": from PIE base *dher(e)- "to hold, support."
Cognates: cf. Avestan dar- "to hold, keep;" Old Persian dar- "to hold," Sanskrit dharmah "custom, law," Greek thronos "seat," Lithuanian dirzmas "strong," Welsh dir "hard," Breton dir "steel."
English Cognates: farm (from Latin), firm (from Latin), affirm (from Latin), confirm (from Latin), throne (from Latin), Darius (from Persian, means "holding firm the good")
Source: Etymoline, Cheung 58, Watkins p.18
  • derg "long": from PIE base *dlonghos- "long."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian darga-, Persian dirang, Sanskrit dirghah, Latin longus, Greek dolikhos "long," Greek endelekhes "perpetual," Latin indulgere "to indulge."
English Cognates: long, along, belong, longitude (from Latin), lounge (from Latin), longevity (from Latin), prolong (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.15
  • decayiş "ache, pain": from PIE base *dhegh- "burn."
Cognates: cf. Avestan dec-, Sanskrit dah "to burn," Lithuanian dagas "hot season," Old Prussian dagis "summer," Gothic dags, Old Eenglish dæg "day" but originally "the heat."
English Cognates: day, today, dawn, foment (from Latin), fever (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Cheung p.54, Watkins p.18, 1
  • derman "remedy": from PIE base *dher(e)- "to hold, support."
Please see the darayış, we-darayış entry.
Source:Nişanyan
  • derzayiş, deştiş "sew": from PIE base *dheregh- "to hold, to fasten."
Cognates: cf. Avestan darez-, Parthian drz, Sanskrit darh "to attach;" Russianderzat "to hold, to keep"
English Cognates: N/A
Source: Cheung p.63
  • des "ten": from PIE base *dekm "ten."
Cognates: cf. Avestan dasa, Sanskrit dasa, Armenian tasn, Greek deka, Latin decem, Lithuanian desimt, Old Irsih deich, Breton dek, Welsh deg, Albanian djetu Old Frisian tian, Old High German zehan, German zehn, Gothic taihun "ten."
English Cognate: ten, thirteen, fourteen..., decimal (from Latin), dime (from Latin), december (from Latin), dozen (from Greek), deca- (from Greek), decagon (from Greek), decade (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.15
  • dest "hand": from PIE base *gheres-to- "hand."
Cognates: cf. Avestan zasta-, Old Persian dasta--, Sanskrit hásta "hand."
English Cognates: surgeon (from Greek), surgery (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.15
  • dêw "monster, giant": from PIE base *dewos- "god," from *dyeu- "to gleam, to shine."
Cognates: cf. Avestan daēva-, Old Persian daiva- "demon, evil god;" Latin deus, Greek zeus, Sanskrit deva- "god."
English Cognates: deity (from Latin), deus (from Latin), diva (from Latin), divine (from Latin), Diana (from Latin), dial (from Latin), diurnal (from Latin), journal (from Latin), journey (from Latin), adjourn (from Latin), meridian (from Latin)
Source: Cheung p.63, Watkins p.22
  • di "two": from PIE base *duwo "two."
Cognates: cf. Avestan dva, Sanskrit dvau, Greek duo, Latin duo, Old Welsh dou, Lithuanian dvi, Old Frisian twene, twa, Old Norsk tveir, tvau, Old High German zwene, zwo, German zwei, Gothic twai "two."
English Cognates: two, twin, twice, twilight, between, bi- (from Latin), balance (from Latin), binal (from Latin), combine (from Latin), diplo- (from Greek), diploid (from Greek), diploma (from Greek), dichotomous (from Greek), duet (from Latin), duo (from Latin), dual (from Latin), dozen (from Latin), double (from Latin), duplex (from Latin), duplicate (from Latin), doubt (from Latin), dubious (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.21
  • dindan "tooth": from PIE base *dent- "tooth."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit danta, Greek odontos, Latin dens, Lithuanian dantis, Old Irish det, Welsh dent "tooth."
English Cognates: tooth, -odon (from Greek), dental (from Latin), dentist (from Latin), indent (from Latin), trident (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.16
  • dirnayiş "tear": from PIE base *der- "tear."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit drnati "cleaves, bursts," Greek derein "to flay," Armenian terem "I flay," Breton darn "piece."
English Cognates: tear, tart, turd, -derma (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.16
  • dum, du "smog": from PIE base *dhumo- "smog."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit dhumah, Persian dud, Latin fūmus, Lithuanian dumai, Old Prussian dumis "smoke;" Middle Irish dumacha "fog," Greek thymos "spirit, mind, soul"
English Cognates: fume (from Latin), perfume (from Latin), funky (from Latin), obfuscate (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.16
  • dûrûst "honest, direct": from PIE base *dru- "tree."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian duruva- "straight, firm;" Lithuanian drutas "firm," Welsh drud, Old Irish dron "strong," Welsh derw "true," Old Irish derb "sure," Old Frisian triuwi, Old High German gatriuwu, German treu, Old Norsk tryggr, Gothic triggws "faithful, trusty."
English Cognate: true, truth, trust, truce
Please also see the "dar" entry.
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.16
  • dûş, dış "bother, against, evil, ill": from PIE bases of *dus- "bad, ill, evil"
Cognates: Avestan duš/duj- Old Persian duš- Sanskrit dus-, "ill," Old High German zur-, Gothic tuz- "un-."
English Cognates: dys- (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.21
  • dişmen "enemy": from PIE bases of *dus- "bad, ill, evil" and *men- "think, remember, have one's mind aroused."
Cognates: Old Persian dušmān, Avestan dušmainyu- "who thinks evil." (Cognates of *dus-; cf. Avestan duš/duj- Old Persian duš- Sanskrit dus-, "ill," Old High German zur-, Gothic tuz- "un-.") and (Cognates of *men-; cf. Avestan manu- Sanskrit matih "thought," munih "sage, seer;" Greek memona "I yearn," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet, seer;" Latin mens "mind, understanding.")
English Cognates: N/A (dys- and mind as separate words; men and mean are also two other words from PIE *men-.)
Source: Etymoline, Nişanyan
  E
  • embar "storage": from PIE bases of *samos "same" and *bher- "carry."
Please see the hem and ber entry.
  • embaz "friend": from PIE bases of *samos "same" and baz (?)
Please see the hem entry.
  • espe "dog": from PIE base *kwon- "dog."
Cognates: cf. Avestan spa, Sanskrit svan-, Greek kyon, Old English hund, Old High German hunt, Old Irish cu, Welsh ci, Russian sobaka (apparently from an Iranian source), Armenian shun, Lithuanian suo "dog."
English Cognate: hound, carmine (from Latin), canine (from Latin), canary (from Latin)
Not: This word only exists in Kulp region. In other dialects, the word for dog is "kutik."
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.46
  • est "is": from PIE base *es- "is."
Cognates: cf. Avestan ah, Old Persian ah, Sanskrit asti, Greek esti, Latin est, Lithuanian esti, Old High German, German, Gothic ist; Old Norse es, er "is."
English Cognate: is, sin, yes, sooth, entity (from Latin), essence (from Latin), absent (from Latin), improve (from Latin), interest (from Latin), present (from Latin), proud (from Latin), swastika (from Sanskrit)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.152, Watkins p.24
  • ez "I": from PIE base *eg- "I."
Cognates: cf. Avestan ezêm Old Persian edêm Sanskrit aham, Hittite uk, Latin ego, Greek ego, Russian ja Old Norse ek, Norwegian eg, Danish jeg, Old High German ih, German ich, Gothic ik "I."
English Cognate: I, ego (from Latin), egoism (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.22
  G
  • ga "cow": from PIE base *gwou- "cow."
Cognates: cf. Skt. gaus, Middle Persian gāw, Greek bous, Latin bov- "cow."
English Cognate: cow, butter (from Latin), buffalo (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.35
  • gam "step": from PIE base *gwem- "to go, come."
Cognates: cf. Avestan jamaiti "goes," Sanskrit gamati "he goes," Tocharian kakmu "come," Lith. gemu "to be born," Greek bainein "to go, walk, step," Latin venire "to come." (see also "ame" entry.)
English Cognate: come, welcome, venue (from Latin), avenue (from Latin), circumvent (from Latin), convene (from Latin), convenient (from Latin), event (from Latin), revenue (from Latin), base (from Greek), basis (from Greek)
Not: Related to the word "ame."
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.100, Watkins p.33
  • gan "live": from PIE base *ane- "to blow, to breathe."
Cognates: cf. Avestan viiānayā "spritness," Parthian gy'n, Middle Persian gy'n "soul," Sanskrit aniti "breathes," Latin anima "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling," Greek anemos "wind," Old Irish anal, Welsh anadl "breath," Ols Irish animm "soul," Gothic uzanan "to exhale," Old Norsk anda "to breathe," Old English eðian "to breathe," Armenian anjn "soul."
English Cognate: animate (fom Latin), animal (from Latin), animus (from Latin), animosity (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.161, Watkins p.4
  • germ "hot": from PIE base *gwherm "warm."
Cognates: cf. Avestan garəma- "warm," Old Persian Garmapada- (name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, from garma- "heat;") Sanskrit gharmah "heat;" Armenian jerm "warm;" Greek thermos "warm;" Latin formus "warm," fornax "oven;" Old Irish fogeir "heated;" Hittite war- "to burn" Old High German, German warm, Old Norsk varmr, Gothic warmjan "to warm."
English Cognate: warm, burn, thermos (from Greek), thermometer (from Greek), thermal (from Greek), furnace (from Latin), fornicate (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.35
  • giran "heavy": from PIE base *gru- "heavy."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit guruh "heavy, weighty;" Greek baros "weight," barys "heavy;" Gothic kaurus "heavy"
English Cognate: grave (from Latin), gravity (from Latin), grief (from Latin), aggravate (from Latin), brut (from Latin), brute (from Latin), Brutus (from Latin), barium (from Greek), barometer (from Greek), guru (from Sanskrit)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.34
  • gîrîyayîş "boil": from PIE base *gwhorm-/*gwherm "warm."
Please see the germ entry.
Source: Cheung p.105
  • goş "ear": from PIE base *aus- "ear."
Cognates: cf. Avestan usi "the two ears" Greek aus, Latin auris, Lithuanian ausis, Russian uši, Gothic auso, Old Irish au "ear,"
English Cognate: ear, aural (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.61
  • grewtiş "to seize, to buy": from PIE base *gherebh- "to seize."
Cognates: cf. Avestan grab- "to grab, seize, take," Old Persian grab- "seize" as possession or prisoner, Sanskrit grbhnati "seizes," Lithuanian grebiu "to rake," Gothic greipan, Old Norsk gripa "grab.")
English Cognate: grab
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.120, Watkins p.31
  H
  • hak "egg": from PIE base *owyo-/*oyyo- "egg."
Cognates: cf. Gothic ada, German ei, Russian jajco, Breton ui, Greek oon, Latin ovum, Lithuanian ōvum, Greek ōion "egg."
English Cognates: egg, oval (from Latin), ovary (from Latin), ovate (from Latin), caviar (from Persian)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.6
  • hem "same": from PIE base *samos "same."
Cognates: cf. Avestan hama, Old Persian hama "similar, the same;" Sanskrit samah "even, level, similar, identical;" Greek hama "together with, at the same time," homos "one and the same," homios "like, resembling," homalos "even;" Latin similis "like;" Old Irish samail "likeness;" Old High German, Gothic sama; Old High German samant, German samt "together, with," Gothic samana "together."
English Cognates: same, similar (from Latin), assemble (from Latin), seem (from Latin), assimilate (from Latin), simultaneous (from Latin), homo- (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.75
  • heş "bear": from PIE base *rtko "bear."
Cognates: Avestan aršam, Sanskrit rksa, Greek arktos, Latin ursus, Persian xerš, Armenian arč, Albanian ari, Ossetian ærs, Welsh arth "bear."
English Cognates: (The PIE word for bear in English is replaced by bear;) arctic (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.72
  • heşt "eight": from PIE base *okto "eight."
Cognates: Avestan ashta, Sanskrit astau, Greek okto, Latin octo, Old Irish ocht, Breton eiz "eight."
English Cognates: eight, october (from Latin), octopus (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.59
  • hewn "sleep": from PIE base *sleb- "to be weak, sleep."
Cognates: cf. Avestan hvap/hvaf "to sleep" Sanskrit svap "sleep," Greek Hypnos "sleep," Latin sopire "to fall asleep," Russian spat "to sleep," Old Frisian slep, Old High German slaf, German Schlaf, Gothic sleps, Old English swefan "sleep."
English Cognates: sleep, hypno (from Greek)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.80
  • hewt "seven": from PIE base *septm "seven."
Cognates: cf. Avestan hapta, Sanskrit sapta, Hittite shipta, Greek hepta, Latin septem, Lithuanian septyni, Old Irish secht, Welsh saith "seven."
English Cognates: seven, september (from Latin), sextuplet (from Latin)
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.76
  • hîrê "three": from PIE base *trejes "three."
Cognates: cf. Avestan thri, Sanskrit trayas, Greek treis, Latin tres, Lithuanian trys, Irish, Welsh tri Old Frisian thre, Old High German dri, German drei, Old Norsk þrir, Danish tre "three."
English Cognates: three, triple (from Latin), triplex, trillium,
Source: Etymoline, Watkins p.93
  • hîris "thirty": from PIE base **trīkomt- "three."
Cognates:
English Cognates: thirty
Source: Etymoline
  K
  • kam "who": from PIE base *kwo-/*kwi- "who."
Cognates: cf. Avestan ko "who," Sanskrit kah "who, which;" Hittite kuish "who," Latin qui, quae, quod "who, which, what," Lithuanian kas "who," Russian kto "who," Danish hvo, Swedish vem, Old Frisian hwa, Dutch wie, Old High German hwer, German wer, Gothic hvo (fem.) "who."
English Cognate: who
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.46
  • kard "cut": from PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack."
Cognates: cf. Avestan kart- "to cut," Sanskrit krnati "hurts, wounds, kills;" krntati "cuts;" Hittite karsh- "to cut off;" Greek keirein "to cut, shear;" Lithuanian skiriu "to separate;" Old Irish scaraim "I separate;" Welsh ysgar "to separate," ysgyr "fragment."
English Cognate: short, share, shore, shear, scar, shirt,
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.243, Watkins p.77
  • karm "worm": from PIE base *kwrmi- "worm."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit krmi, Russian čermnyj,"worm, insect."
English Cognate: carmine (from Sanskrit), crimson (from Sanskrit), kermes (from Sanskrit)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.46
  • kay "game": from PIE base *keh/ker- "to desire, love."
Cognates: cf. Avestan - "to take pleasure, desire," Old Persian kama "desire;" Sanskrit Kama, name of the Hindu god of love, kamah "love, desire," Latin carus "dear;" Old Irish cara "friend;" Swedish hora, Old High German huora "whore."
English Cognate: whore, caress (from Latin), charity (from Latin), cherish (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.227, Watkins p.36
  • kêna "girl": from PIE base *ken- "youn, new, fresh."
Cognates: cf. Avestan kainya, Sanskrit kanina- "young;" Greek kainos "new;" Old Irish cetu- "first."
English Cognate: recent (from Latin), -cene (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Fortson p.219, Watkins p.36
  • kerdiş, kar "to do": from PIE base *kwer- "to make, form."
Cognates: cf. Avestan kar-, Old Persian kar- "to do, make" Sanskrit kar "to do" karman- "action, fate;" Old Irish cruth "form," Lithuanian kurti "I found, build."
English Cognate: karma (from Sanskrit)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.237, Watkins p.45
  • , key "when": from PIE base *kwo-/*kwi- "who."
English Cognate: when
Please see the "kam", "kum" entry.
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.46
  • kilit "lock": from PIE base *klau- "hook, crooked or forked branch."
Cognates: cf. Latin clavis "key," clavus "nail," claustrum "bar, bolt, barrier," claustra "dam, wall, barricade, stronghold;" Greek kleidos "bar, bolt, key," klobos "cage;" Old Irish clo "nail;" kljuciti "shut;" Lithuanian kliuti "to catch, be caught on," kliaudziu "check, hinder," kliuvu "clasp, hang;" Old High German sliozan "shut," German schließen "shut," Schüßel "key;" Middle Irish clithar "hedge, fence."
English Cognate: close (from Latin), closet (from Latin), include (from Latin), exclude (from Latin), enclave (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Watkins p.42
  • kîn "hate, grudge": from PIE base *kwei- "to pay, atone, compensate."
Cognates: cf. Avestan kaena "punishment, vengeance;" Sanskrit cinoti "observes, notes;" Greek time "price, worth, honor, esteem, respect;" Latin poenalis "pertaining to punishment;" Lithuanian kaina "value, price."
English Cognate: penal (from Latin), penalty (from Latin), punishment (from Latin), penology (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Watkins p.44
  • kîştiş "kill": from *kau- "to strike, beat."
Cognates: cf. Lithuanian kauju "to beat, forge;" Latin cudere "to strike, beat;" Middle Irish cuad "beat, fight."
English Cognate: hew
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.251, Watkins p.37
  • kunz, kêz "goose": from PIE base *ghans- "goose."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit hamsah, masc., hansi, fem., "goose swan;" Greek khen; Latin anser; Polish ges "goose;" Lithuanian zasis "goose;" Old Irish geiss "swan," Old Frisian gos, Old Norse gas, Old High German gans, German gans "goose"
English Cognate: goose
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  L
  • lew: from PIE base *leb- "lip."
Cognates: cf. Old Frisian lippa, Middle Dutch lippe, German lefze, Swedish läpp, Danish læbe "lip.")
English Cognate: lip
Source: Etymonline
  • lizg: from PIE base *lHghs- "branch."
Cognates: cf. Lithuanian lagzda "shaft of spear," Polish laska "branch."
English Cognate: N/A
Note: This is one of the rare examples where Zazaki keeps the PIE "*l" sound.
Source: Schwartz
  • lûye: from PIE base *wl̥p-eh₁- "fox."
Cognates: cf. Avestan urupis, Persian rōbāh Armenian ałvēs, Greek alōpēks, Latin volpēs, Lithuanian lapė, Latvian lapė "fox."
English Cognate: N/A
Note: This is one of the rare examples where Zazaki keeps the PIE "*l" sound while it turns to an "r" sound in other Iranian languages, including the Avestan language.
Source: Schwartz
  M
  • may, marde "mother": from PIE base *mater- "mother."
Cognates: cf. Avestan mātar-, Sanskrit matar-, Latin mater, Old Irish mathir, Lithuanian mote, Greek meter, Danish moder, Dutch moeder, German mutter "mother."
English Cognate: mother
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • mendiş "to stay": from PIE base *men- "to remain, wait for."
Cognates: cf. Persian mandan "to remain," Latin mansionem (nom. mansio) "a staying, a remaining, night quarters, station," Greek menein "to remain."
English Cognate: mansion" (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p.74
  • meng "moon": from PIE base *me(n)ses- "moon, month."
Cognates: cf. Avestan māh, Old Persian māh, Sanskrit masah "moon, month;" Armenian mis "month;" Greek mene "moon," men "month;" Latin mensis "month;" Lithuanian menesis "moon, month;" Old Irish mi, Welsh mis, Breton miz "month," Old High German mano, Old Frisian mona, Old Norsk mani, Dutch maan, German mond, Gothic mena "moon."
English Cognate: moon, month
Source: Etymonline
  • merdiş "dying": from PIE base *mor-/*mr- "to die."
Cognates: cf. Avestan miryeite "dies," Old Persian martiya- "man," Sanskrit mrtih "death," Latin mortalis "subject to death," Lithuanian mirtis "mortal man," Greek ambrotos "immortal," Old Irish marb, Welsh marw "died," Old English morþ "murder"
English Cognate: mortal, murder
Source: Etymonline
  • merdim "man": from PIE bases *mor-/*mr- "to die" and *teuk- "seed, lineage, tribe"
Cognates: Avestan miryeite-teoma "family of mortals," New Persian merdum "men;" (Cognates of *mor-/*mr-; cf. Avestan miryeite "dies," Old Persian martiya- "man," Sanskrit mrtih "death," Latin mortalis "subject to death," Lithuanian mirtis "mortal man," Greek ambrotos "immortal," Old Irish marb, Welsh marw "died," Old English morþ "murder") and (Cognates of *teuk-; Old Persian tauma- "family, tribe;" Avestan taoχman-, teoma "seed, family;" Sanskrit tokám "lineage," New Persian toxm "seed.")
English Cognate: N/A (but mortal, murder from *mor-/*mr- root)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • merre "mouse": from PIE base *muHs- "mouse"
Cognates: cf. Old Persian mush "mouse," Sanskrit mus "mouse, rat," Latin mus, Lithuanian muse "mouse," Greek mys "mouse, muscle" Old Norse, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch mus, German maus "mouse."
English Cognate: mouse, muscle
Source: Etymonline
  • mezg "brain": from PIE base *mregh-m(n)o- "skull, brain."
Cognates: cf. Greek brekhmos "front part of the skull."
English Cognate: brain
Source: Etymonline
  • mi "I": from PIE base *me-, *eme- "I."
Cognates: cf. Avestan mam, Sanskrit mam, Greek eme, Latin me, Old Irish me, Welsh mi, Old Norse, Gothic mik, Old High German mih, German mich "me."
English Cognate: me
Source: Etymonline
  • mîyes "fly": from PIE base *mu- "gnat."
Cognates: cf. Persian magas, Latin musca, Armenian mun, Russian muxa, Polish mucha, Lithuanian musė "gnat."
English Cognate: midge
Source: Etymonline
  • mîyan "middle": from PIE base *medhyo- "middle."
Cognates: cf. Avestan madiya- "middle," Sanskrit madhyah, Greek messos, Latin medius "middle;" Gothic midjis, Old English midd "middle," Armenian mej "middle"
English Cognate: middle, mid, medial (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  • mîz "urine": from PIE base *Hmeigh "to urinate."
Cognates: cf. Avestan maez "to urinate," Sanskrit meh "to urinate," Latin mingo "I urinate," Lithuanian myzti "to urinate."
English Cognate: N/A (micturate "desire to urinate;" it is a medical term from Latin) and (migan, Old English)
Source: Cheung
  • murcela "ant": from PIE base *morwi- "ant."
Cognates: cf. Avestan maoiri, Sanskrit vamra, Greek myrmex, Latin formica, Polish mrówka, Albanian morr, Persian murče, Russian murovej "ant."
English Cognate: formic (from Latin)
Source:
  • murdar "dead": from PIE base *mor-/*mr- "to die."
Cognates: cf. Avestan miryeite "dies," Old Persian martiya- "man," Sanskrit mrtih "death," Latin mortalis "subject to death," Lithuanian mirtis "mortal man," Greek ambrotos "immortal," Old Irish marb, Welsh marw "died," Old English morþ "murder"
English Cognate: mortal, murder
Source: Etymonline
  • mûjdun "present given to someone who brings good news": from PIE base *mizdho- "reward."
Cognates: cf. Avestan mijda, Greek misthos "wage, pay;" Gothic mizdo
English Cognate: N/A
Source: Fortson p.60
  N
  • name: from PIE base *nomn- "name."
Cognates: cf. Avestan nama, Sanskrit nama, Greek onoma, onyma, Latin nomen, Russian imya, Old Irish ainm, Old Welsh anu, Old Frisian nama, Old High German namo, German name, Old Norse nafn, Gothic namo "name."
English Cognate: name, noun (from Old French)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • : from PIE base *ne- "no, not."
Cognates: cf. Old Norse, Old Frisian, Old High German ne, Gothic ni "not."
English Cognate: no, not, none, un-
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • new: from PIE base *newn "nine."
Cognates: cf. Avestan nava, Sanskrit nava, Greek ennea, Albanian nende, Latin novem, Lithuanian devnyi, Old Frisian niugun, Old Norsk niu, German neun, Gothic niun "nine."
English Cognate: nine
Source: Etymonline
  • newe: from PIE base *newos "new."
Cognates: cf. Avestan nava-, Sanskrit navah, Hittite newash, Greek neos, Lithuanian naujas, Russian novyi, Latin novus, Old Irish nue, Welsh newydd, Old Frisian nie, German neu, Danish, Swedish ny, Gothic niujis "new."
English Cognate: new, news
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • niştiş: from PIE base *sed- "to sit."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian hadis "abode;" Sanskrit a-sadat "sat down," sidati "sits;" Greek ezesthai "to sit," hedra "seat, chair, face of a geometric solid;" Old Irish suide "seat, sitting;" Welsh sedd "seat," eistedd "sitting;" Lithuanian sedmi "to sit;" Russian sad "garden," Lithuanian soditi "to plant;" Gothic sitan, Old English sittan "to sit," Old Norse sitja, Old Frisian sitta, Dutch zitten, Old High German sizzan, German sitzen, Gothic sitan "sit."
English Cognate: sit, sedentary (from Middle French), reside (from Old French), residence (from Old French), site (from Latin), situate (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  P
  • pak: from PIE base *peu-/*pu- "to purify, cleanse."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit pāvaka "purifies, cleanses;" Middle Persian pawāk "pure," Latin putus "clear, pure;" putah "pure," Middle Irish ur "fresh, new," Old High German fowen "to sift."
English Cognate: pure (from Old French)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • panc: from PIE base *pengke "five."
Cognates: cf. Avestan pança-, Sanskrit panca, Greek pente, Latin quinque, Armenian hink, Lithuanian penke, Old Welsh pimp "five."
English Cognate: five, punch (from Sanskrit; it is a mixed drink made from five ingredients)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • parçê, parê: from PIE base *per- "to assign, allot."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit purtam "reward," Middle Persian pārag "part," Greek peprotai "it has been granted," Hittite parshiya- "fraction, part," Latin partem "part, piece, side, share."
English Cognate: part (from Old French), particle (from Latin), partner (from Old French), party (Old French), partition (Old French), parcel (Old French) department (from Latin), apartment (from Latin), portion (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • paşt: unknown PIE origin, perhaps from *por/*per- "forth" + *sta- "to stand."
Cognates: cf. Avestan parshti "back," Sanskrit prstham "back, roof, peak;" Greek pastas "porch in front of a house, colonnade," Middle High German virst "ridepole," Lithuanian pirstas "finger."
English Cognate: post "upright timber, pillar" (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  • pay: from PIE base *pod-/*ped- "foot."
Cognates: cf. Avestan pad-, Sanskrit pat "foot;" Greek pos, Latin pedis Lithuanian padas "sole," peda "footstep" Old Norse fotr, Dutch voet, German fuß, Gothic fotus "foot."
English Cognate: foot, pedestrian (from Latin), podium (from Latin), pedal (from French), pedicure (from French)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • persayiş: PIE base *prek- "to ask, request, entreat."
Cognates: cf. Avestan frashna-, Skt. prasna- "question;" Latin precari "ask earnestly, beg;" Lithuanian prasyti "to ask, beg;" Old High German frahen, German fragen, Old English fricgan "to ask."
English Cognate: pray (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • pewc, poc: from PIE base *pekw- "to cook."
Cognates: cf. Sanskrit pakvah "cooked," Greek peptein, Latin cocus "cook," Lithuanian kepti "to bake, roast."
English Cognate: cook (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung, Nişanyan
  • pîy, parde: from PIE base *piter "father."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian pita, Sanskrit pitar-, Greek pater, Latin pater, Old Irish athir, Old Norse faðir, German vater "father."
English Cognate: father, paternal (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • pir: from PIE base *ple- "full."
Cognates: cf. Avestan perena-, Old Persian paru "much;" Sanskrit purvi "much," prayah "mostly;" Greek poly- Greek plethos "people, multitude, great number," pleres "full," polys "much, plenty," ploutos "wealth," plethein "be full;" Lithuanian pilus "full, abundant;" Gothic filu "much," Old Norse fjöl-, Old English fela, feola "much, many;" Old English folgian; Old Irish lan, Welsh llawn "full;" Old Irish il, Welsh elu "much."
English Cognate: full, poly- (from Greek), plethora (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  • pird: from PIE base *prtu- "a going, a passage," from base *per- "to lead, pass over"
Cognates: cf. Avestan peretush "passage, ford, bridge;" Sanskrit parayati "carries over;" Greek poros "journey, passage;" Latin porta "gate," portare "passage;" Armenian hordan "go forward;" Welsh rhyd "ford;" Old English faran "to go, journey," Old Norse fjörðr "inlet, estuary."
English Cognate: ford, forth, fare, port (from Latin), portal (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • perayiş: from PIE base PIE *porno- "feather, wing" from base *pet-/*pte- "to rush, to fly"
Cognates: cf. Avestan parêna "wing," Sanskrit patram "wing, feather, leaf," patara- "flying, fleeting;" Hittite pittar "wing;" Greek piptein "to fall," potamos "rushing water," pteryx "wing;" Old English feðer "feather;" Latin penna "feather, wing;" Old Welsh eterin "bird."
English Cognate: fern, feather, petition (from Old French), pen (from Old French)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • perr, pel: from PIE base PIE *porno- "feather, wing" from base *pet-/*pte- "to rush, to fly"
Cognates: cf. Avestan parêna "wing," Sanskrit patram "wing, feather, leaf," patara- "flying, fleeting;" Hittite pittar "wing;" Greek piptein "to fall," potamos "rushing water," pteryx "wing;" Old English feðer "feather;" Latin penna "feather, wing;" Old Welsh eterin "bird."
English Cognate: fern, feather, petition (from Old French), pen (from Old French)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  R
  • raşt: from PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line."
Cognates: cf. Avestan razeyeiti "directs," Avestan and Old Persian rasta- "straight," Old Persian aršta- "rectitude," Sanskrit raj- "a king, a leader;" Greek orektos "stretched out, upright;" Latin rectus "straight, right;" Old Irish recht "law," Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz "just, righteous, wise," Lithuanian teisus "right, true," Greek dikaios "just," Gothic reiks "a leader;" Old English rice "kingdom," -ric "king," rice "rich, powerful," riht "correct;" Gothic raihts, Old High German recht, Old Swedish reht, Old Norse rettr "correct" Old High German reht, German recht, Old Norse rettr, Gothic raihts "just, good, fair, proper, fitting, straight."
English Cognate: right, rich, regal (from Latin), royal (from Latin), rex (from Latin), rectitude (from Latin), rectify (from Latin), rectangular (from Latin), regime (from French), regular (from Old French), regulation (from Old French), regent (from Old French), rule (from Old French), rector (from Latin), direct (from Latin) etc...
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan, Cheung
  • ro: from PIE base *sreu- "to flow."
Cognates: cf. Avestan thraotah-, raonam "stream, river;" Old Persian rauta "river," Sanskrit sravati "flows," srotah "stream;" Greek rheos "a flowing, stream;" Old Irish sruaim, Irish sruth "stream, river;" Welsh ffrwd "stream;" Lithuanian sraveti "to trickle, ooze;" Old Norse straumr, Old English stream Danish strøm, Swedish ström, Norwegian straum, Old Frisian stram, Dutch stroom, Old High German stroum, German strom "current, river."
English Cognate: stream, rheum (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • roc: from PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness."
Cognates: cf. raoxšna- "shining, bright" Sanskrit rocate "shines;" Armenian lois "light," lusin "moon;" Greek leukos "bright, shining, white;" Latin lucere "to shine," lux "light," lucidus "clear;" Lithuanian laukas "pale;" Welsh llug "gleam, glimmer;" Old Irish loche "lightning," luchair "brightness;" Hittite lukezi "is bright" Old Frisian liacht, Middle Dutch lucht, German Licht "light."
English Cognate: light
Source: Etymonline, Cheung, Nişanyan
  • roşt: from PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness."
Please see the "roc" entry.
  S
  • sere: from PIE base *ker- "uppermost part of the body, head, horn, top, summit."
Cognates: cf. Avestan sarah "head", Sanskrit srngam, Greek karnon, Latin cornu, Lithuanian cerĕbrum, Russian čerep, Old Prussian kerpetis, Armenian sar "head", Breton kern, Tocharian krāñi, Ossetian sær, Albanian krye "horn."
English Cognate: horn, horny, carrot (from Latin), corner (from Old French)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • se: from PIE base *kmtom "hundred."
Cognates: cf. Avestan satem, Sanskrit satam, Greek hekaton, Latin centum, Lithuanian simtas, Old Irish cet, Breton kant Old Norse hundrað, German hundert, Gothic hund, Old High German hunt "hundred"
English Cognate: hundred, century (from Latin), cent (from Latin), centimeter (from Latin), hectare (hect is from Greek, are is from Latin), percent (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  • serr: from an Arya (Indo-Iranian) base *srda- "year."
Cognates: cf. Avestan serda, Talishi sor, Pesrian sal, Kurdish sal "year."
English Cognate: N/A
Not: Indo-European word "*yar-" is replaced by "serr" word in Zazaki as in other Iranian languages.
Source: Paul p.117
  • serd: from PIE base *gel-/*kel- "cold."
Cognates: cf. Ave sarəta-, Middle Persian sard, Old English cald "cold."
English Cognate: cold, cool
Source: Etymonline
  • serpez: from PIE base *splegh- "spleen."
Cognates: cf. Avestan sperezan, Sanskrit plihan-, Armenian p'aicaln, Latin lien, Lithuanian bluznis, Old Prussian blusne, Old Irish selg "spleen"
English Cognate: spleen
Source: Etymonline
  • -stan (as a compound in words like daristan, şaristan, bostan (buestan): from PIE base *sta- "to stand, set down, make or be firm."
Cognates: cf. Avestan histaiti "to stand;" Pers. -stan "country," literally "where one stands;" Sanskrit tisthati "stands;" Greek histemi "cause to stand, set, place," Latin stare "stand," sistere "stand still, stop, make stand, place, produce in court," status "manner, position, condition, attitude," statio "station, post;" Lithuanian stojus Old Norse standa, Gothic standan, Old High German stantan, Swedish stå, Dutch staan, German stehen "stand."
English Cognate: stand, stall, stead, stud, standard (from Middle French), state (from Latin) station (from Old French) stet (from Latin), stable (from Old French), stadium (from Latin), stay (from Middle French), static (from Greek), stasis (from Greek), stature (from Middle French), statute (from Latin), statue (from Old French), stage (from Old French), status (from Latin), stance (from Middle French), stat (from Latin), stagnant (from French) stater (from Greek), assist (from Middle French), estate (from Old French) etc...
Source: Etymonline, Cheung, Nişanyan
  Ş
  • şay, şa: from PIE base *qwi- "rest."
Cognates: cf. Avestan šaitiš "joy," Old Persian šiyati "joy," Latin quies "rest, repose, quiet," Gothic hveila, Old English hwil "space of time."
English Cognate: while "a space of time," quiet (from Latin),
Source: Etymonline, Cheung, Nişanyan
  • şeş: from PIE base *seks "six."
Cognates: cf. Avestan kšvaš, Sanskrit sas, Greek hex, Latin sex, Lithuanian sesi, Old Irish se, Welsh chwech, Old Norse, Old Frisian sex, Middle Dutch sesse, Dutch zes, Old High German sehs, German sechs, Gothic saihs "six."
English Cognate: six, sixty, hexagon (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  T
  • teng: from PIE base *tenk- "to become firm, curdle, thicken."
Cognates: cf. Middle Persian tang "tight," Sanskrit tanc "to draw together, contract;" Irish techt "curdled, coagulated," Lithuanian tankus "close, tight," Old English meteþiht "stout from eating," Middle High German dihte "dense, thick;" German dicht "dense, tight;" Old High German gidigan, German gediegen "genuine, solid, worthy."
English Cognate: tight
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • tersayiş: from PIE base *tres- "to tremble."
Cognates: cf. Avestan tarshta "feared, revered," Sanskrit trasati "trembles," Greek treëin "to tremble," Lithuanian triseti "to tremble," Middle Irish tarrach "timid" Latin terribilis "frightful," from terrere "fill with fear."
English Cognate: terrible (from Old French), terror (from Old French), tremor (from Old French), terrific (from Latin),
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • teyşan: from PIE base *ters- "dry."
Cognates: cf. Avestan tarshu- "dry, solid," Sanskrit tarsayati "dries up," Greek teresesthai "to become or be dry," Latin torrere "dry up, parch," Gothic þaursus "dry, barren," O High German thurri, German dürr, Old English þyrre "dry;" Old English þurstig "thirsty"
English Cognate: thirsty, terrain (from French), territory (from Latin),
Source: Etymonline, Cheung, Nişanyan
  • tîc: from PIE base *(s)teig- "to sting, stab."
Cognates: cf. Avestan taeça-/taeja- "sharp, pointed," tighri- "arrow," tigra "ray of ligt;" Old Persian tigra- "sharp, pointed;" Latin in-stigare "to goad;" Greek stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument;" Lithuanian stingu "to remain in place;" Russian stegati "to quilt" Old Frisian steka, Dutch stecken, Old High German stehhan, German stechen "to stab, prick."
English Cognate: stick, sting, stigma (from Greek) astigmatism (from Greek),
Source: Etymonline, Cheung, Nişanyan
  • tix: from PIE base *(s)teig- "to sting, stab."
Please see the "tic, tij" entry.
  • tirş: from PIE base *ters- "dry."
Please see the "teyşan, teyşun" entry.
  • toxm, tom, tum: from PIE base *teuk- "seed, family, lineage, tribe"
Cognates: cf. Avestan taoχman-, teoma "seed, family;" Old Persian tauma- "family, tribe;" Sanskrit tokám "lineage," New Persian toxm "seed."
English Cognate: N/A
Source: Nişanyan
  U
  • ustin, stûn: from PIE base sta- "to stand, set down, make or be firm."
Cognates: cf. Avestan stūna-, Middle Persian stūn, Sanskrit sthūnā "column, pillar;" Greek stōís "column," staurós "poll", Latin instaurare "to set up a poll," German stütze "back up, support."
English Cognate: Please look at the "-stan" entry.
Source: Nişanyan
  V
  • va: from PIE base *we-nt-o- "blowing," from base *we- "to blow."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vata-, Sanskrit vatah, Hittite huwantis, Latin ventus, Lithuanian vejas "wind;" Lithuanian vetra "tempest, storm;" Old Irish feth "air;" Welsh gwynt, Breton gwent "wind" Sanskrit va-, Greek aemi-, Gothic waian, Old English wawan, Old High German wajan, German wehen, "to blow;" Old Frisian, Dutch wind, Old Norse vindr, Old High German wind, German wind, Gothic winds "wind."
English Cognate: wind, window, winnow, weather, ventilate (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • vac: from PIE base *wek- "give vocal utterance, speak."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vac- "speak, say;" Sanskrit vakti "speaks, says;" vacas- "word;" Greek eipon "spoke, said;" epos "word;" Latin vocem (nom. vox) "voice, sound, utterance, cry, call, speech, sentence, language, word," Old Prussian wackis "cry," German er-wähnen "to mention."
English Cognate: voice (from Old French), vox (from Latin), vocal (from Old French), vowel (from Old French), vocabulary (from Latin), vociferous (from Latin), vocation (from Latin), vocative (from Middle French)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • varan: from PIE base *ur- "to moisten, flow"
Cognates: cf. Avestan var "rain," Sanskrit var "water," Greek ouron "urine," Latin urina "urine," Lithuanian jures "sea," Old Eenglish wær, Old Norse ver "sea," Old Norse ur "drizzling rain."
English Cognate: urine (from Old French)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • vatiş, vate: from PIE base *wek- "give vocal utterance, speak."
Please see the "vac" entry.
  • veng "voice": from PIE base *wek- "give vocal utterance, speak."
Please see the "vac" entry.
  • veng "empty": from PIE base *wa-no-, from base *eue- "to leave, abandon, give out."
Cognates: cf. Avestan va- "lack," Persian vang "empty, poor;" Sanskrit una- "deficient" Latin vacare "to be empty," vastus "empty, waste;" Old English wanian "to lessen," wan "deficient;" Old Norse vanta "to lack;"
English Cognate: wane, waste (from Anglo-French), vain (from Old French), vanity (from Old French), vacate (from Latin), vanish (from Old French), vacant (from Old French),
Source: Etymonline, Cheung
  • veyve: from PIE base *wadh- "to lead, marry a woman"
Cognates: cf. Avestan vad- "to lead," Sanskrit vadhu "bride, young woman;" Lithuanian vedu "I lead, marry;" Middle Welsh dy-weddio "to marry," Old High German widamo "wedding present."
English Cognate: wedding, to wed
Source: Cheung
  • verg: from PIE base *wlqwos/*lukwos, from base *wlp-/*lup- "wolf."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vehrka-, Sanskrit vrkas, Albanian ulk, Russian volcica, Lithuanian vilkas "wolf;" Old Perssian Varkana-, Hyrcania "district southeast of the Caspian Sea, literally wolf-land;" probably also Greek lykos, Latin lupus; Old Norse ulfr, Old Frisian, Dutch, Old High German, German wolf, Gothic wulfs "wolf."
English Cognate: wolf
Source: Cheung
  • vîst: from PIE base *wīḱm̥t- "twenty."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vīsaiti-, Latin vīgintī "twenty."
English Cognate: twenty
Source: Citation needed
  • viya: from PIE base *widhewo- "widow."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vithava "widow," Sanskrit vidhuh "lonely, solitary;" vidhava "widow;" Latin vidua, Russian vdova, Old Irish fedb, Welsh guedeu "widow;" Persian beva, Greek eitheos "unmarried man;" Latin viduus "bereft, void;" Old Frisian widwe, Middle Dutch, Dutch weduwe, Dutch weeuw, Old High German wituwa, German witwe, Gothic widuwo, Old English widewe "widow."
English Cognate: widow
Source: Etymonline
  • vil: from PIE base *wrdho- "thorn, bramble."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian *vrda-, Armenian vard, Latin rosa, Greek rhodon "rose."
English Cognate: rose (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  • viraştiş: from PIE base *werg- "to work."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vareza "work, activity;" Greek ergon "work," orgia "religious performances," organon "tool;" Armenian gorc "work," Lithuanian verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze;" vargas "need, distress;" Gothic waurkjan, Old English wyrcan "work;" Gothic wrikan "persecute," Old English wrecan "drive, hunt, pursue;" Old Norse yrka "work, take effect."
English Cognate: work, urge (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p. 425
  • vîyal: from PIE base *wei-ti- "willow."
Cognates: cf. Avestan vaeiti- "osier," Greek itea "willow," Latin vitis "vine," Lithuanian vytis "willow twig," Polish witwa, Welsh gwden "willow," Russian vitvina "branch, bough;" Old Norse viðir, Danish vidje, Old High German wida, German weide "willow."
English Cognate: withy
Source: Etymonline
  W
  • wa: from PIE base *swesor "sister."
Cognates: cf. Avestan xvanhar-, Sanskrit svasar-, Latin soror, Russian sestra, Lithuanian sesuo, Old Irish siur, Welsh chwaer, Greek eor Old Saxon swestar, Old Frisian swester, Middle Dutch suster, Dutch zuster, Old High German swester, German Schwester, Gothic swistar "sister."
English Cognate: sister, sorority (from Latin)
Source: etymonline
  • wendiş: from PIE base *swen- "sound."
Cognates: cf. Avestan xvan "to sound," Sanskrit svanati "it sounds," svanah "sound, tone;" Latin sonus "sound," sonare "to sound;" Old Irish senim "the playing of an instrument;" Old English geswin "music, song," swinsian "to sing;" Old Norse svanr, Old English swan "swan, the sounding bird"
English Cognate: swan, sound (from Latin), sonic (from Latin)
Source: etymonline
  • wesar: from an Arya (Indo-Iranian) base *upa-serda- (upa part is from PIE base *uper "over.")
Cognates: cf. Talishi avasor, New Persian absalan, Pashtun psarlay "spring." Cognates for *upa: Sanskrit upari, Avestan upairi "over, above, beyond," Latin super, Greek hyper, Old English ofer "over," Gothic ufaro "over, across,"
English Cognate: super (from Latin), summit (from Latin), superb (from Latin), hyper- (from Greek)
Source: etymonline, Paul p.177, Watking p.94
  X
  • xo: from PIE base *s(w)e- "separate, apart."
Cognates: cf. Avestan hvet, Old Norsk sjalfr, O.Frisian self, Old High German selb, German selbst, Goth. silba "self."
English Cognates: self
Source: Etymoline
  Y
  • yew: from PIE base *oinos "one."
Cognates: cf. Old Persian aivam, Greek oinos "ace (on dice)," Latin unus "one," Lithuanian vienas, Old Irish oin, Breton un, Old Norse einn, Danish een, Old Frisian an, Dutch een, German ein, Gothic ains "one"
English Cognate: one, uni (from Latin), unite (from Latin), unit (from Latin), universal (from Latin), university (from Latin)
Source: etymonline
  Z
  • zama: from PIE base *gem(e)- "to marry."
Cognates: cf. Avestan zamatar, Old Persian damatar "groom;" Sanskrit jamih "brother, sister," jama daughter-in-law;" Greek gamos, gambros "son-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law;" Latin gener "son-in-law."
English Cognate: gamete (from Greek), polygamy (from Greek), bigamy (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Nişanyan
  • zanayiş: from PIE base *gno- "know."
Cognates: cf. Avestan zan-, Old Persian dan "to know;" Russian znat "to know;" Latin gnoscere; Greek *gno-, as in gignoskein; Sanskrit jna- "know."
English Cognate: know, gnostic (from Greek), agnostic (from Greek)
Source: Etymonline, Cheung p. 466
  • zonî: from PIE base *g(e)neu- "knee."
Cognates: cf. Avestan znum, Sanskrit janu, Hittite genu "knee;" Greek gony "knee," gonia "corner, angle;" Latin genu "knee."
English Cognate: knee, kneel, -gon (from Greek as in heptagon, pentagon, polygon etc.)
  • zer: from PIE base *ghel- "yellow, green."
Cognates: cf. Avestan zaranya-, Old Persian daraniya-, Sanskrit hiranyam, Russian zoloto, Old Frisian, Old High German gold, German gold, Middle Dutch gout, Dutch goud, Old Norse gull, Danish guld, Gothic gulþ "gold."
English Cognate: gold
Source: Etymonline
  • zerd: from PIE base *ghel- "yellow, green."
Cognates: Avestan zari "yellow," Sanskrit harih "yellow, tawny yellow;" Latin helvus "yellowish, bay," Gallo-Latin gilvus "light bay;" Lithuanian geltonas "yellow;" Polish zolty, Russian zeltyj "yellow;" Old English geolu, geolwe, Middle English yellow, German gelb "yellow" and "green" (cf. Latin galbus "greenish-yellow;" Greek khloros "greenish-yellow color," kholos "bile;" Lithuanian zalias "green," zelvas "greenish;" Polish zielony, Russian zelenyj "green;" Old Irish glass, Welsh, Breton glas "green," also "grey, blue.")
English Cognate: yellow, Chloe (from Greek), chlorine (from Greek), Cloris (from Latin), cholera (from Greek),
Source: Etymonline
  • zerre: from PIE base *kerd- "heart."
Cognates: cf. Avestan zeredā, Sanskrit hṛdaya, Greek kardia, Latin cor, Old Irish cride, Welsh craidd, Hittite kir, Lithuanian širdis, Armenian sird, Russian serdce "heart," Breton kreiz "middle," Old Norse hjarta, Dutch hart, Old High German herza, German herz, Gothic hairto "heart."
English Cognate: heart, cordial (from Middle French), core (from Old French), record (from Old French), concord (from Old French), accord (from Old French), discord (from Old French), cardiac (from French), courage (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline
  • zimistan: from PIE base *gheim- "snow, winter;" and *sta- "to stand, set down, make or be firm."
Cognates: cf. Avestan zimo, Sanskrit hemanta, Latin hiems, Greek kheima, Gaulish zima, Russian zima, Polish zima, Lithuanian žiema, Latvian ziemas, Old Prussian semo, Armenian dzmeṙ, Albanian dimër/dimën, Persian zemestān, Hittite gima, Old Norse gói "winter."
English Cognate: hibernation (from Latin), Himalaya (from Sanskrit)
Source: Etymonline
  • ziwan: from PIE base *dnghwa- "language, tongue."
Cognates: cf. Avestan hizū-, Sanskrit jihvā, Latin lingua "tongue, speech, language;" from Old Latin dingua; Old Irish tenge, Welsh tafod, Lithuanian liezuvis, Old Norse tunga, Old Frisian tunge, Middle Dutch tonghe, Dutch tong, Old High German zunga, German zunge, Gothic tuggo "tongue."
English Cognate: tongue, tang, language (from Latin), lingual (from Latin), lingo (from Latin)
Source: Etymonline

References:

  • Cheung, Johnny. Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Boston: Brill. 2007.
  • Etymonline. Online English Etymology Dictionary. <etymonline.com> by Douglas Harper.
  • Fortson, Benjamin W. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell Publishing. 2004.
  • Nisanyan, Sevan. Etymological Dictionary of Modern Turkish. Adam Y. Istanbul 2007.
  • Watkins, Calvert. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots. Second Ed. Houghton Publishing. USA 2007.