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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[çımeyi bıvurne]

The table below gives the most commonly used attributes; you can copy the horizontal form below or vertical form in the left hand column and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation|last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

| publication-place=
| accessdate=
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
    • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: An url of an online location where the item can be found.
    • accessdate: Date when the url was accessed.

Example[çımeyi bıvurne]

{{ Citation
 | last=Turner
 | first=O.
 | title=History of the Pioneer
Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's
Purchase, and Morris' Reserve
 | publisher=William Alling
 | place=Rochester, New York
 | year=1851
 | url = http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Full citation parameters[çımeyi bıvurne]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items—these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

| author=
| last=
| first=
| author2=
| last2=
| first2=
| author-link=
| author2-link=
| author-separator=
| author-name-separator=
| author=mask=
| display-authors=
| coauthors=
| editor=
| editor-last=
| editor-first=
| editor2=
| editor2-last=
| editor2-first=
| editor-link=
| editor2-link=
| others=
| publication-date=
| year=
| month=
| origyear=
| title=
| chapter=
| chapter-url=
| contribution=
| contribution-url=
| type=
| journal=
| periodical=
| newspaper=
| magazine=
| work=
| edition=
| series=
| volume=
| issue=
| publisher=
| publication-place=
| place=
| language=
| page=
| pages=
| nopp=
| at=
| id=
| isbn=
| issn=
| oclc=
| pmid=
| pmc=
| pmc-embargo-date:
| bibcode=
| doi=
| doi-inactive=
| url=
| accessdate=
| format=
| archiveurl=
| archivedate=
| quote=
| lay-summary=
| lay-source=
| lay-date=
| separator=
| postscript=
| ref=
  • author (or author1): The author's name. It is preferable to use the last/first attributes below for single or multiple authors.
    • last (or last1): The author's surname or last name.
    • first (or first1): The author's first or given name(s).
    • author2, last2, first2, up to author9 etc.: can be used for multiple authors– up to 8 will be shown before et al. is displayed
    • author-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author (author2-link etc can also be used).
    • author-separator: override the default semi-colon that separates authors.
    • author-name-separator: override the default comma that separates authors' last and first names.
    • display-authors: Truncate the list of authors at an arbitrary point with "et al". You should still include the first 9 authors to allow metadata to be generated. n.b. operates only when the authors are given using either several |authorn=, or several |lastn=|firstn= pairs; does not affect the display of a list in either |authors= or |coauthors=.
    • lastauthoramp: If supplied, whether or not assigned a value, places an ampersand (&) before the last name of final author, if more than one author is supplied. Recommended usage is lastauthoramp=yes.
    • coauthors: Names of additional author(s) can be given but author2 or last2, first2 is preferred.
  • editor: Name of editor, placed after date with ,ed. Not required for periodicals.
    • editor-link: link to article about the editor
  • others: Any other associated people (e.g. foreword) placed after editor.
  • publication-date (or date): Date[n 1] of publication.
    • date: Date[n 1] of authorship, if different from date of publication. If only date is used, it will be treated as the date of publication.
    • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
      • month: Month of publication (ignored if the date field is used).
    • origyear: Year of first publication, if different.
  • title: Title of the book or article in a periodical. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • chapter or contribution: title of the chapter or part of a publication will be put in quotes.
    • chapter-url or contribution-url: use to add a link to the chapter or contribution title.
  • type: An optional field which can be used to provide additional information about a publication type. The content appears in parentheses following the title. If the publication is a thesis or dissertation, the type might be specified as type=PhD thesis, If the publication is an audiobook on compact disk, the type might be specified as type=CD.
    • journal or periodical or newspaper or magazine or work: Name of the journal or periodical.
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
    • series: The book series of which this book is a part.
    • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book.
    • issue: Issue number of a periodical.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not needed if issn or doi used.
    • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
      • place or location: City in which the work was made, if different from the city of publication. If only place is used, it will be treated as the city of publication.
  • language: If not English. e.g. Finnish.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
    • pages: For use when multiple pages are cited. Adds "pp." before the page numbers. Do not use with page.
    • nopp: if set to any value, page=/pages= do not generate 'p.' or 'pp.'. E.g. nopp=true. Using at= has the same effect.
    • at: Position within the resource when |page=/|pages= is inappropriate or insufficient. This parameter is ignored if |page=/|pages= is specified. Examples of usage of |at=: |at=para. 14 (when citing a source without page numbers), |at=02:56 (a film or audio timestamp), |at=no. 456 (something in a numbered list), |at=p. 6, col. 2 (for a page and a column because "column" is not a Citation template parameter), or |at=sec. F pp. 4–6 (for a section and a page within the section, "section" not being a parameter).
  • id: A unique identifier for the document, used if none of the below are applicable. In this case, you need to specify the kind of identifier you are using, preferably with a template like {{MR}} / {{MathSciNet}}, {{Zbl}}, {{ArXiv}}, {{JSTOR}} or {{JFM}}.
    • isbn: Use this parameter if the book has an ISBN; follow the guidance at Wikipedia:ISBN to use ISBNs with correctly placed dashes, and give the ISBN-13 instead of ISBN-10 when available.
    • issn: The publication's International Standard Serial Number such as 1111-2220. The eight-figure ISSN may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen; but not an N-dash or a space.
    • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
      • doi_inactivedate: Date[n 1] on which the DOI was observed to be not functioning.
    • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
    • pmid: The document's PubMed Unique Identifier, such as 15128012
    • pmc: The document's PubMed Central article number (PMCID) for full-text free repository of an article, such as 246835
      • pmc-embargo-date: The date that an article will be freely accessible at PubMed central. After this date, the title will automatically link to the free full text at PubMed Central (and the parameter will be removed by a bot).
    • bibcode: The document's bibcode in the Astrophysics Data System, e.g., 1924MNRAS..84..308E
  • url: An url of an online location where the book can be found.
    • This should point to, in descending order of preference:
      1. A free online version of the full text
      2. An online version of the full text, for which subscription is required
      3. An abstract or information page, if no DOI or PMID record is available
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.
    • format: format of online documentation if not html (e.g. pdf).
    • archive parameters (if used, both must be used together)
      • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if (or in case) the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and Archive.org.
      • archivedate: Date when the item was archived. Should not be wikilinked.
  • separator: specifies the punctuation mark used to separate certain fields. This defaults to a comma; the 'Cite xxx' family of templates uses a period.
  • lay-summary: URL of a lay summary of a technical article, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
    • lay-source: Name of the source, e.g. The Guardian (UK newspaper) or New Scientist.
    • lay-date: The date[n 1] of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
  • postscript: Set terminal punctuation. Omit or leave blank to remove the trailing full stop. Punctuation specified by this parameter will appear within the cite span, and consequently before any icons added by metadata-using software (e.g. library browser plugins). Hence this parameter should be used instead of manually appending data to the citation. This parameter is ignored if |quote= is specified, when |postscript=. is forced.
  • ref: An explicit ID for Harvard references; see Anchors for Harvard references

Examples[çımeyi bıvurne]

Books[çımeyi bıvurne]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{ Citation
 | last1=Lincoln
 | first1=A.
 | last2=Washington
 | first2=G.
 | last3=Adams
 | first3=J.
 | lastauthoramp=yes
 | title=All the Presidents' Names
 | publisher=The Pentagon
 | place=Home Base, New York
 | volume=XII
 | edition=2nd
 | year=2007
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Web[çımeyi bıvurne]

Web page
|title=NPS Focus 
|work=National Register of Historic Places 
|publisher=[[National Park Service]] 
|accessdate=November 30, 2010
Xetay lua: unknown error.
archived page
|title=Earth's Atmosphere
|accessdate=October 25, 2007
|publisher=[[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/
|archivedate = October 13, 2007
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[çımeyi bıvurne]

Journal article
 | last=Hill
 | first=Marvin S.
 | title=Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=12
 | issue=2
 | year=1976
 | pages=1–8
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
Xetay lua: unknown error.
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
|first1= M, 
|first2= J, 
|first3= D, 
|first4= D 
|title=The dimensions of DNA in solution 
|journal=J Mol Biol 
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Newspaper article
 | last=Smith
 | first=Joseph III
 | author-link=Joseph Smith III
 | title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma
 | newspaper=The Saints' Herald
 | publication-place=Plano, IL
 | volume=26
 | issue=19
 | date=October 1, 1879
 | year=1879
 | month=October
 | page=289
 | url=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
Xetay lua: unknown error.
Conference paper
  | last = Sullivan
  | first = D.B.
  | contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
  | year = 2001
  | title = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
  | publisher = National Institute of Standards and 
  | url = 
  | format = PDF
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[çımeyi bıvurne]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
 | last=Bidamon
 | first=Emma Smith
 | author-link=Emma Hale Smith
 | chapter=Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
 | date=March 27, 1876
 | year=1876
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
Xetay lua: unknown error.
Work with an editor but no author
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
Xetay lua: unknown error.
Encyclopedia article by a named author
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | author-link = Martin Kramer
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | publication-date = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
Xetay lua: unknown error.
Encyclopedia article with no named author
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | year = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[çımeyi bıvurne]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
 | last=Knight
 | first=Joseph, Sr.
 | year=1833
 | editor-last=Jessee
 | editor-first=Dean
 | title=Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=17
 | issue=1
 | publication-date=1976
 | pages=35
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
Xetay lua: unknown error.
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
 | last=Klingensmith
 | first=Philip
 | contribution=Affidavit
 | year=1872
 | date=September 5, 1872
 | place=Lincoln County, Nevada
 | title=Mountain Meadows Massacre
 | editor-last=Toohy
 | editor-first=Dennis J.
 | journal=Corinne Daily Reporter
 | publication-date=September 24, 1872
 | publication-place=Corinne, Utah
 | volume=5
 | issue=252
 | pages=1
 | contribution-url=http://
Xetay lua: unknown error.

Press release[çımeyi bıvurne]

Press release with quotation
{{cite press release
| url=http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title=Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher=Apple Inc| accessdate=April 10, 2010
| quote=in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3}}
Apple Inc. "Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day". Press release. http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html. Retrieved April 10, 2010. "in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3" 

Citing patents[çımeyi bıvurne]

Parameters (all are optional)[çımeyi bıvurne]

 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number =
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.

Examples[çımeyi bıvurne]

United States patent with multiple inventors
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}

Anchored citations[çımeyi bıvurne]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{Harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{Citation}} template. If an empty |ref= is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Xetay lua: unknown error.

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[çımeyi bıvurne]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{Harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "Şablon:Harv", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R.H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372 }}
  • Xetay lua: unknown error.

In this example the {{Citation}} template defines, and the {{Harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{Harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "Şablon:Harvid".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{Harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{Sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=The Ego and the Id |year=1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{Citation}} and {{Harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{Citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{Citation}} and the {{Harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki #time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS) but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[çımeyi bıvurne]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{Harv}}-compatible IDs:

  • Xetay lua: unknown error.
  • Xetay lua: unknown error.

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[çımeyi bıvurne]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
    • The format of dates in the references of an article should use a consistent and unambiguous style. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • 2009 Sep 14
    • September 2009
    • Sept./Oct. 2009
    • As indicated above, month names are sometimes abbreviated (e.g., September to "Sept" or "Sept." or "Sep" or "Sep.")
    • Dates should not be linked in references.
    • Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[çımeyi bıvurne]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools which can help create a reference in the 'citation' format.

COinS[çımeyi bıvurne]


Additional parameters[çımeyi bıvurne]

Şablon:AuthorMask doc