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Referansi[bıvurne | çımey bıvurnê]

  1. Michael Lind (2006). What Lincoln Believed: The Values and Convictions of America's Greatest President. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 48. ISBN 9781400030736. Lincoln was known to friends and enemies alike throughout his life as a deist, a feet that illustrates the influence of eighteenth-century thought on his outlook. "I am not a Christian," he told Newton Bateman, the superintendent of education in Illinois. 
  2. John B. Remsburg. Abraham Lincoln: Was He a Christian?. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 9781465518941. Washington, like Lincoln, has been claimed by the church; yet, Washington, like Lincoln, was a Deist. This is admitted even by the leading churchmen of his day. 
  3. Albert E. Moyer (1983). American Physics in Transition: A History of Conceptual Change in the Late Nineteenth Century. Springer. p. 40. ISBN 9780938228066. This deistic leaning persisted in Mayer's thought. 
  4. John Ferguson (ed.). Plato: Republic Book X. Taylor & Francis. p. 15. Anaxagoras was a typical Deist. 
  5. Atheist Becomes Theist - Biola News and communications
  6. The Times obituary of Adam Smith
  7. V. Minorsky. Mongol Place-Names in Mukri Kurdistan (Mongolica, 4), Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 58-81 (1957), p. 66. JSTOR
  8. Henry C. Vedder. Forgotten Books. p. 353. ISBN 9781440073427. To use modern nomenclature, Plato is theist, Aristotle Deist. 
  9. Charles Bigg. Neoplatonism. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. p. 50. The reason for this low-pitched morality Atticus discerned, and here again he was right, in the Deism of Aristotle. Deism regards God as creating and equipping the world, and then leaving it to itself. 
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  11. Francesca Aran Murphy (2004). Art and Intellect in the Philosophy of Étienne Gilson. University of Missouri Press. p. 179. ISBN 9780826215369. But when thirteenth-century Parisian philosophers were atheists, Gilson said, “the deism of Averroës was their natural philosophy”:... 
  12. John Watkins (1800). An Universal biographical and historical dictionary: containing a faithful account of the lives, actions, and characters of the most eminent persons of all ages and all countries : also the revolutions of states, and the successions of sovereign princes, ancient and modern. R. Phillips. ...for Averroes was in fact a deist, and equally ridiculed the christian, jewish, and mohammedan religions. 
  13. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin from
  14. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  15. Gerhard Falk (1995). American Judaism in Transition: The Secularization of a Religious Community. University Press of America. p. 121. ISBN 9780761800163. Evidently, Gauss was a Deist with a good deal of skepticism concerning religion but incorporating a great deal of philosophical interests in the Big Questions, that is. the immortality of the soul, the afterlife and the meaning of man's existence. 
  16. Bühler, Walter Kaufmann (1987). Gauss: a biographical study. Springer-Verlag. p. 153. ISBN 0-387-10662-6. 
  17. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  18. Morris Kline (1982). Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty. Oxford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780195030853. 
  19. Keith Stewart Thomson (2009). The Young Charles Darwin. Yale University Press. p. 109. ISBN 9780300136081. In his religious views, Lyell was essentially a deist, holding the position that God had originally created the world and life on it, and then had allowed nature to operate according to its own (God-given) natural laws, rather than constantly intervening to direct and shape the course of all history. 
  20. Joseph Brent (1998). Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life (2 ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780253211613. Peirce had strong, though unorthodox, religious convictions. Although he was a communicant in the Episcopal church for most of his life, he expressed contempt for the theologies, metaphysics, and practices of established religions. 
  21. Deism - Entry in the Dictionary of the History of Ideas
  22. Jack Repcheck (2010). The Man Who Found Time: James Hutton and the Discovery of the Earth's Intiquity. p. 58. ISBN 9781458766625. But Maclaurin had one other major effect on Hutton. Maclaurin was a deist, one who believes in a creator God, a God who designed and built the universe and then set His creation into motion (but does not interfere with the day-to-day workings of the system or the actions of people). 
  23. Michael D. Gordin (2004). A Well-ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev And The Shadow Of The Periodic Table. Basic Books. p. 230. ISBN 9780465027750. Mendeleev's son Ivan later vehemently denied claims that his father was devoutly Orthodox: "I have also heard the view of my father's 'church religiosity' — and I must reject this categorically. From his earliest years Father practically split from the church — and if he tolerated certain simple everyday rites, then only as an innocent national tradition, similar to Easter cakes, which he didn't consider worth fighting against." ...Mendeleev's opposition to traditional Orthodoxy was not due to either atheism or a scientific materialism. Rather, he held to a form of romanticized deism. 
  24. Freethought Traditions in the Islamic World by Fred Whitehead; also quoted in Cyril Glasse, (2001), The New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 278. Rowman Altamira.
  25. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  26. Elihu Palmer - First Presbyterian Church of Newtown
  27. Michael Patrick Leahy (2007). Letter to an Atheist. Harpeth River Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780979497407. 
  28. Peter J. Bowler (2012). Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain. University of Chicago Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780226068596. Ernest Rutherford seems to have abandoned his Presbyterian up- bringing completely, apart from its moral code. A colleague wrote of him: "I knew Rutherford rather well and under varied conditions from 1903 onwards, but never heard religion discussed; nor have I found in his papers one line of writing connected with it." ...Given the reports quoted above, it is difficult to believe that either Rutherford or Ford was deeply religious in private. 
  29. Ethan Allen. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  30. Frederick the Great -
  31. Victoria Frede (2011). Doubt, Atheism, and the Nineteenth-Century Russian Intelligentsia. University of Wisconsin Pres. p. 57. ISBN 9780299284442. Schiller was no atheist: he preached faith in God and respect for the Bible, but he condemned Christianity (both Catholic and Protestant forms) as a religion of hypocrisy. 
  32. "In a commentary on Shaftesbury published in 1720, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a Rationalist philosopher and mathematician, accepted the Deist conception of God as an intelligent Creator but refused the contention that a god who metes out punishments is evil." Andreas Sofroniou, Moral Philosophy, from Hippocrates to the 21st Aeon, page 197.
  33. "Consistent with the liberal views of the Enlightenment, Leibniz was an optimist with respect to human reasoning and scientific progress (Popper 1963, p.69). Although he was a great reader and admirer of Spinoza, Leibniz, being a confirmed deist, rejected emphatically Spinoza's pantheism: God and nature, for Leibniz, were not simply two different "labels" for the same "thing". Shelby D. Hunt, Controversy in marketing theory: for reason, realism, truth, and objectivity (2003), page 33.
  35. 35.0 35.1 "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  36. Armand Borel (2000). The Mathematical Legacy of Harish-Chandra: A Celebration of Representation Theory and Harmonic Analysis : An AMS Special Session Honoring the Memory of Harish-Chandra, January 9–10, 1998, Baltimore, Maryland. American Mathematical Soc. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9780821811979. The sense of purpose Harish gave to his life had some spiritual, even religious underpinning. His religion was not a traditional one with the usual paraphernalia of stories, rituals, prayers and direct intervention of a personal god. Rather it was on an abstract, philosophical level, a yearning for some universal principle, transcending our lives, which would give a sense to the universe. Mathematics was maybe for him a way to approach it this life. 
  37. Domenico Monetti. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
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  39. June Z. Fullmer (2000). Young Humphry Davy: The Making of an Experimental Chemist, Volume 237. American Philosophical Society. p. 158. ISBN 9780871692375. In prominent alliance with his concept, Davy celebrated a natural-philosophic deism, for which his critics did not attack him, nor, indeed, did they bother to mention it. Davy never appeared perturbed by critical attacks on his "materialism" because he was well aware that his deism and his materialism went hand in hand; moreover, deism appeared to be the abiding faith of all around him. 
  40. Yobazlık Bir Fikir Müstehasesidir, Nihâl Atsız, Ötüken Dergisi, 1970, Sayı: 11
  41. James J. Heckman (2009). "James J. Heckman". In William Breit, Barry T. Hirsch. Lives of the Laureates, Fifth Edition: Twenty-three Nobel Economists (5 ed.). MIT Press. pp. 303–304. ISBN 9780262012768. If I had any religion at that time, it was Deism. I was impressed by God the watchmaker. 
  42. Russell McCormmach (2004). Speculative Truth: Henry Cavendish, Natural Philosophy, and the Rise of Modern Theoretical Science. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780195160048. James Hutton, a deist, believed that nature was self-sustaining, without need of ongoing help from God, and that the laws of nature were immanent in the world. 
  43. Joseph McCabe (1945). A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Freethinkers. Haldeman-Julius Publications. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
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  46. "The dividing line between Deism and atheism among the Philosophes was often rather blurred, as is evidenced by Le Rêve de d'Alembert (written 1769; "The Dream of d'Alembert"), which describes a discussion between the two "fathers" of the Encyclopédie: the Deist Jean Le Rond d'Alembert and the atheist Diderot." Andreas Sofroniou, Moral Philosophy, from Hippocrates to the 21st Aeon, page 197.
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  53. Eugène Müntz (2011). Leonardo Da Vinci. Parkstone International. p. 80. ISBN 9781780422954. To begin with, even if it could be shown – and this is precisely one of the points most in dispute – that Leonardo had broken with the teachings of the Catholic Church, it would still be nonetheless certain that he was a deist and not an atheist or materialist. 
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  57. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  58. 58.0 58.1 "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  59. Dale Essary. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  60. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  61. Nancy Thorndike Greenspan (2005). The End of the Certain World: The Life and Science of Max Born : the Nobel Physicist who Ignited the Quantum Revolution. Basic Books. pp. 58–62. ISBN 9780738206936. Max later traced his reluctance to his father, who had taught him not to believe in a God who punished, rewarded, or performed miracles. Like his father, he based his morality on his "own conscience and on an understanding of human life within a framework of natural law." ...Born, in fact, was no longer Jewish. His mother-in-law had worn him down. In March 1914, after a few religion lessons in Berlin, he was baptized a Lutheran by the pastor who had married him to Hedi. As he later explained, "there were...forces pulling in the opposite direction [to my own feelings]. The strongest of these was the necessity of defending my position again and again, and the feeling of futility produced by these discussions [with Hedi and her mother]. In the end I made up my mind that a rational being as I wished to be, ought to regard religious professions and churches as a matter of no importance.... It has not changed me, yet I never regretted it. I did not want to live in a Jewish world, and one cannot live in a Christian world as an outsider. However, I made up my mind never to conceal my Jewish origin." 
  62. Rit Nosotro. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  63. J. L. Heilbron (1986). The Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck and the Fortunes of German Science. Harvard University Press. p. 198. ISBN 9780674004399. On the other side, Church spokesmen could scarcely become enthusiastic about Planck's deism, which omitted all reference to established religions and had no more doctrinal content than Einstein's Judaism. It seemed useful therefore to paint the lily, to improve the lesson of Planck's life for the use of proselytizers and to associate the deanthropomorphizer of science with a belief in a traditional Godhead. 
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  65. Tatyana Klevantseva. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  66. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  67. Jennifer Michael Hecht, "Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson", pg. 227-230
  68. Ronald Bruce Meyer. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  69. James R. Hansen (2005). First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. Simon and Schuster. p. 33. ISBN 9780743281713. It is clear that by the time Armstrong returned from Korea in 1952 he had become a type of deist, a person whose belief in God was founded on reason rather than on revelation, and on an understanding of God's natural laws rather than on the authority of any particular creed or church doctrine. While working as a test pilot in Southern California in the late 1950s, Armstrong applied at a local Methodist church to lead a Boy Scout troop. While working as a test pilot in Southern California in the late 1950s, Armstrong applied at a local Methodist church to lead a Boy Scout troop. Where the form asked for his religious affiliation, Neil wrote the word “Deist.” 
  70. Talia Soghomonian. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
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  74. James R. Wible. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  75. In a correspondence on the matter Edison said: "You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made." New York Times. October 2, 1910, Sunday.
  76. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  77. Michael Corbett and Julia Mitchell Corbett, Politics and religion in the United States (1999) p. 68
  78. Dulles, Avery (January 2005). "The Deist Minimum". First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life (149): 25ff. 
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  81.Şablon:Dead link
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  83. Werner Heisenberg (2007). Physics and Philosophy: The Revolution in Modern Science. HarperCollins. p. 215. ISBN 9780061209192. 
  84. Werner Heisenberg (1971). Der Teil und das Ganze. Harper & Row. p. 84. Still, religion is rather a different matter. I feel very much like Dirac: the idea of a personal God is foreign to me. 
  85. Explorers Club, New York (1981). Ernest Ingersoll, ed. Explorers journal, Volumes 59-61. Explorers Club. p. 105. Nominally, Wernher von Braun was a Lutheran, but he was actually agnostic with atheistic overtones until the defeat of Germany. He confided to me that he seemed to have experienced a revelation. He had adopted the religious philosophy of Albert Einstein in which he did not believe in a God who punished the bad and rewarded the good. Instead, he believed in a Supreme Being responsible for the Universe and all it embraces. 
  86. Ramesh Chopra (2005). Academic Dictionary of Philosophy. Gyan Books. p. 143. ISBN 9788182052246. What Garrison did in the anti-slavery campaign is well known. The clergy to it that Americand do not know equally well that he rejected Christianity and was at the most a deist. 
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  88. Charles Paul Enz (2002). No Time to Be Brief: A Scientific Biography of Wolfgang Pauli. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198564799. At the same time Pauli writes on 11 October 1957 to the science historian Shmuel Sambursky whom he had met on his trip to Israel (see Ref. [7],Şablon:Nonspecific p. 964): 'In opposition to the monotheist religions — but in unison with the mysticism of all peoples, including the Jewish mysticism - I believe that the ultimate reality is not personal.'