Thomas Paine

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine, ser 1737, 29 menga çıle dı, mıntıqa İngıltere Norfolk dı suka Thetford dı maya xü ra biyo u ser 1809 dı, 8 menga temuzi dı suka Émeriqa New York City dı şiyo heqeyda xü ser. İngılız-Émeriqan Paine, ju kı İngılterey ra qandê Émeriqa serbestey waşto u gürweyayo ina ra ju zi Paine yo.

Thomas Paine, İngıltere dı mabênê dewıjan dı gırd bı. Piyê cı Joseph Paine, merdımê do ézayê xırubê do fanatik biyo (na xırubi rê vanê Kılisey Anglikani). Gürweyê cı zi deştenda qorsey biyo (qorsedeştox). Thomas Paine, çı wext beno dıwês (12) sere, mektebi ra fek verdeno u piyê xü hetı çıraxey keno. Çı wext beno newês (19) sere kelegê (botê) ticari dı gürweyeno u ser 1759 dı doş beno yeno İngıltere u xü rê dukanê qorse, suka Sandwich, Kent dı akeno, éyni ser zewıcêno u sere sera tepa zi cınya cı şına réhmet.

Sera 1760’an dı zaf suk u ca vırneno. Ser 1768 dı bar keno şıno Lewes, East Sussexi u wuca dı bı wahêrdê kêyey Samuel Ollive u êy yaremeteya Paine kerd u cı kerd ézayê ju piyabestenda méhli. Thomas Paine, o piyabesteni dı élaqay cı bı persê siyasi vırazya u êy qandê feqir u nêçaran perey arêdayê pêser. Paine, ser 1771 dı newedera izdiwac kerd u bı kêynada Samuel Ollive, Elizabeth a zewıcya.

Ser 1772 dı meqaledê xü yê sıfteyını vız u panc peri ser siyaseti bı namedê The Case of the Officers of Excise (méhkemeda ju dêyndar serdemê leşkeran) nuşna. Maqalada cı sera dı (2) seri ramıt yan nê no Londra dı Benjamin Franklini di. Bı teşwikê Benjamin Franklin no 1774 dı verê kı kêy xü bar kero şıro Émeriqa cınya xü verdeno (fek cıra verdeano, teléq dano) u şıno Émeriqa dı ca beno.

Fıkrê cı[bıvurne | çımey bıvurne]

Bı maqaleda xü yê kı ser 1776 bı namedê Common Sense (hisê raşt [sağduyu]) mabênê şarê Émeriqan dı yaremetey di u nuşte bı xü serbesteyda Émeriqa, İngıltera ra waştê. Paine na meqala xü ters ra anonim (bêname) nuşna. Na maqale tesirê George Washington ke u Washington va wextê abıyayenı Émeriqa u İngıltere pêyşayo/hadıreyo. Na nuşte tesirê zaf merdıman kerd nina ra şend bini zi: Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Rush, Abraham Lincoln u Thomas Alva Edison o. Thomas Jefferson u Benjamin Rush Dekerasyonê Serbesteyda Émeriqa nuşnay.

Paine ser 1800 dı Napoleon di. Verê Paine Napoleon zaf hézkerdê u cayê no hézkerdenı qıcıx gırot u Napoleoni méhkum diktatorey keno. Paine héta ser 1802 Fransa dı maneno u dıma vêyndayenda Thomas Jefferson fına newedera tepya şıno Émeriqa. Paine yeno Émeriqa u çend seri dıma şıno heqeyda xü ser. Defnê cı dı tenya şeş medımi estbiyo. Esteyê Paine, William Cobbett cayê cıra hewanano u beno İngıltere.

Nuştey Paine[bıvurne | çımey bıvurne]

  • 1995. Collected Writings, Eric Foner, ed. The Library of America. ISBN 1-883011-03-5
  • 1998. Rights of Man, Common Sense, and Other Political Writings, ed. by Mark Philp. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283557-2.
  • 1976. Common Sense, Issac Kramnick, ed.
  • 1948. The Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine, 2 vols. Edited by Philip S. Foner.
  • Agrarian Justice.
  • Of The Religion of Deism Compared With The Christian Religion.
  • Origin of Freemasonry.

Derheqdê Paine[bıvurne | çımey bıvurne]

  • Aldridge, A. Owen, 1984. Thomas Paine's American Ideology.
  • Bernard Bailyn, 1990. "Common Sense", in Bailyn, Faces of Revolution.
  • Butler, Marilyn, 1984. Burke Paine and Godwin and the Revolution Controversy.
  • Gregory Claeys, 1989. Thomas Paine, Social and Political Thought.
  • Moncure Daniel Conway, 1892. The Life of Thomas Paine, 2 vols. G.P. Putnam's Sons. Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Facsimile.
  • Howard Fast, 1946. Citizen Tom Paine (historical novel).
  • Eric Foner, 1976. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. Oxford University Press. The standard biography
  • Hawke, David Freeman, 1992. Paine.
  • Robert G. Ingersoll, 1892, "Thomas Paine," North American Review.
  • Kates, Gary, 1989, "From Liberalism to Radicalism: Tom Paine's Rights of Man," Journal of the History of Ideas: 569-87.
  • Kaye, Harvey J., 2005. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. Hill and Wang.
  • Keane, John, 1995. Tom Paine: A Political Life. London.
  • Larkin, Edward, 2005. Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Nelson, Craig, 2006. Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Moderrn Nations. Viking.
  • Powell, David, 1985. Tom Paine, The Greatest Exile. Hutchinson.
  • Vincent, Bernard, 2005. The Transatlantic Republican: Thomas Paine and the age of revolutions.

Çımey[bıvurne | çımey bıvurne]

1. A Biography of Thomas Paine (1737-1809), From Revolution to Reconstruction, Department of Humanities Computing, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Accessed online 4 November 2006.

2. Thomas Paine, ushistory.org, Independence Hall Association. Accessed online 4 November 2006.

3. Leaflet number 4: The Adventures of Thomas Paine, The Pink Triangle Trust. Accessed online 4 November 2006.

4. Thomas Paine, Letter to George Washington 30 July 1796: "On Paine's Service to America". Available online at cooperativeindividualism.org, accessed 4 November 2006.

5. Craig Nelson, Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Modern Nations, Viking (2006), ISBN 0-670-03788-5. Excerpted online on Nelson's own web site; accessed 4 November 2006.

6. Robert G. Ingersoll, Thomas Paine, written 1870, published New Dresden Edition, XI, 321, 1892. Accessed online at thomaspaine.org, 17 February 2007.

7. Thomas Paine, African Slavery In America, written 1774, published Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser, March 8, 1775. Accessed online at thomaspaine.org, 4 November 2006.

8. Keith S Cornish, Thomas Paine: An Unsung Hero, Atheist Foundation of Australia, Inc., 12 August 2001. Accessed online 4 November 2006.

9. Peter Landry, Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Accessed online 4 November 2006.

10. Joseph Lewis, "Thomas Paine and The Age of Reason", Address delivered Feb. 17, 1957, over Radio Station WMIE, Miami Florida. Transcript online at positiveatheism.org. Accessed 4 November 2006

11. Thomas Edison, Introduction to The Life and Works of Thomas Paine, Citadel Press, New York, 1945 Vol. I, p.vii-ix. Reproduced online on thomaspaine.org, accessed 4 November 2006.

12. The Tom Paine Project, Lewes Town Council. Accessed online 4 November 2006.

  • Books of Our Time: Thomas Paine and the Promise of America (video)