Lur

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Xıl de pusula Xıl de cıgeyrayışi
Lur
لۊر
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Total population
5 milyon
Regions with significant populations
İran
  • 4–5 milyon
  • texmin beno ke %7ê İran
[3][4]
İraq 117,000[5]
Kuweyt 50,000
Uman 5,100[6]
Languages
Lurki: Bextıyarki, Leki & Feyli
Religion
İslamo Şıi, Yersenizm
Related ethnic groups
Farsi, Kurdi

Lur (Lor zi vaciyeno; Lurki: لور, Farski: لُر) şaro de İrankiyo, İrankiyo verociyo de rocawankiyo ke pêro verocê İrani de cıwiyeno u nıfusê xo texmin beno ke 5 milyon miyan vuriyeno. Ê İran de Lurıstan, Kohgıluye u Buyer-Ehmed, Xuzıstan u Fars (pêro Lamerd, Mamasani u Rostam), Buşehr, Çeharmehal u Bextıyari, Hemedan, İam u İsfahan de cıwiyenê.[7]

Şarê Luri pêro zıwanê Lurki ra qal kenê (no zıwan rê "Lori" zi vaciyeno) u zıwano İrankiyo de verocê rocawanio. No zıwan be zıwananê Farski u Kurdki ra gıreydayo, nê zıwanan miyan de maneno. Heto bin ra yew letey Luran zi rocvetışê İraqi dero. İraq de Luri be namanê Feyli (Kurdê Feyli zi vaciyeno) ra zi zaniyenê u Feyli Diyala (Xanaqin, Mendeli u Muqdadiyah) u Beğdad de ca gênê. Gorey Ensiklopediya İslami ra, zıwanê Lurki zıwano en nezdiyo ke hıma esto u be Pehlewki ra gıreydayo.[8] Gorey linguist Don Still ra zi, Lurki - Bextıyarki yew versiyonê zıwanê Farskiyo ke direkt Pehlewki ra vıraziyao.[9] Michael M. Gunter argument rameno ke şarê Luri be şarê Kurdi ra xeylê nezdiyo hama ê Kurdan ra der u dür kewtê verê 1,000 serran ra."[10]

Luri demografiye de Kohgıluye u Buyer-Ehmed, İlam, Lurıstan u Çeharmehal u Bextıyari de şaro de en gırdo. Nêmê populasyonê Xuzıstani u %30ê populasyonê Buşehri zi Luran ra yena pêra.[11]

Zıwan[bıvurne | çımeyi bıvurne]

Profesor Richard N. Frye nuşto ke "Luri u diyalektê inan Farsanê eyaletê Farsir a zaf nezdiyo u co ra ke Lur zi gırey dano zıwananê İrankiyanê verocê rocawankiyan.".[12]

Zıwanê Lurki de dı grubê diyalekti estê:

  • Diyalekto ke Luri-i buzurg (Greater Lur) de qal beno u Farski ra xeylê nezdiye mocneno. ThNo diyalekt terefê şarê Bextıyari, Kuh-Gilu-Boir Ahmed, u zımey u rocvetışê Xuzıstani, qazey Farsi Mamasani u tayê cayanê Buşehri de zıwano yewıneo ke qal beno.
  • Diyalekto ke Lur-i-Kuchek de qal beno u Soranki ra nezdiyo u heto bin ra be Farski zi nezdiye mocneno. No diyalekt Lurıstan de, zafê dewanê Hemedani de (Malayer, Nahavand, Towisarkan) u verocê İlami zımey Xuzıstani de qal beno.
  • Yew zi gruba hirêyıne esta ke Luran ra vıraziyena u zıwanê inan rê Luri-e-Minjaee vaciyeno; ena grube etnisite de letey Lur-e- kuchak amariyena, diyalekt de zi letey Lur-e-bozorgi amariyena.

Luri yewbiyayışê klananê Hind - İrankiyan ra amariyenê, rıçık u oricinê inan Asyay Miyani ra yenê. Michael M. Gunter nuşto ke Lur Kurdan ra nezdio hama Kurd niyo" O ilawe keno ki Şerefnamey Şeref Xan Bıdlısi "Dı şarê Luri ponc şaranê Kurdan miyan de ca gênê, ê xoseriye u serbestiye ver de xeylê kar kerdo."[10] </ref>

Zıwanê Lurki

Cênetik[bıvurne | çımeyi bıvurne]

Varyasyonê inanê NRYi vêniyeno ke Luri şaranê İrankiyanê binan ra cıra vêniyenê u inan de frekansê Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b asenê.[13] Ninan teber de, R1 zi haplogruba de tewr gırda ke Luran miyan de asena.[13][14] Haplogroup J2a (bıngrubi J2a3a-M47, J2a3b-M67, J2a3h-M530,) haplogruba dıyıneya ke merdumê Luri miyan de asena, be difusyon ra menda, Rocvetışo Nezdi de m. 8000-4000 Vİ veciyo.[14][15][16][17] Haplogruba bini geyrena cı ki be %10ê Luran frekans mocneno u bıngruba [Haplogroup G-M201 (Y-DNA)|G2a]]ya be G2a3b ra.[18][18] Lineages Q1b1 and Q1a3 present at 6%, and T at 4%.[18]

Kultur[bıvurne | çımeyi bıvurne]

Luran miyan de, waştış u kerdışê serê eşiran şarê goçkerdoği ser de zaf kar kenê, gırdiya inan mocnenê, yanê qısey pilan mılet ser de dominanto. Hama şarê ke suke de cıwiyenê, inan ser de qısey pilan u kulturê eşiri nêvêrenê. Bextıyari u şarê Kurdi de, cêniyê Luri wayirê xoseriya gırde gorey şaranê İrankiyê binan ra.[19]

Baweriye[bıvurne | çımeyi bıvurne]

Mabênê Luran de, zaf mıxtelif din u itıqadi estê. Hama zafêri mısılmanê u mısılmanê dê şiıyê. Heto bin ra Luri zi estê ke xo Zerduşt vênênê.

Çım berzên[bıvurne | çımeyi bıvurne]

Referansi[bıvurne | çımeyi bıvurne]

  1. "The relations of these dialects to one another, and to the languages of ancient Persia, have not yet been fully worked out, though excellent monographs on several of them exist, and the quatrains of the celebrated Baba Tahir, "the Lur...,""; "A little volume containing the quatrains of 'Omar Khayyam, of Baba Tahir the Lur of Hamadan (the most celebrated dialectical poet of Persia)"; "Two modern copies of quatrains (in W. Persian dialect) of Baba Tahir 'Uryan " the Lur."; "notably of Baba Tahir whose poems in the Lur dialect are highly esteemed"; "le Luristan et le poete Baba Tahir Hamadani"
  2. Muhammad Karim Khan, of the Zand clan of the Lur tribe, suc- ceeded in imposing his authority on parts of the defunct Safavid empire, David Yeroushalmi, The Jews of Iran in The Nineteenth Century: Aspects of History, Community, and Culture, BRILL, 2009, ISBN 978-90-04-15288-5, p. xxxix.
  3. "Iran". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html#People. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  4. "Iran". New America Foundation. June 12, 2009. http://www.terrorfreetomorrow.org/upimagestft/TFT%20Iran%20Survey%20Report%200609.pdf. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  5. http://www.peoplegroups.org/Explore/groupdetails.aspx?peid=11717
  6. http://www.peoplegroups.org/explore/groupdetails.aspx?peid=11881
  7. Cultural Survival Inc. (http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/iran/lurs-iran), "The Lurs of Iran".
  8. C.S. Coon, "Iran:Demography and Ethnography" in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume IV, E.J. Brill, pp 10,8.
  9. Don Stillo, "Isfahan-Provincial Dialects" in Encyclopedia Iranica, Excerpt: "While the modern SWI languages, for instance, Persian, Lori-Bak_tia-ri and others, are derived directly from Old Persian through Middle Persian/Pahlavi"
  10. 10.0 10.1 Gunter, Michael M. (2011). Historical Dictionary of the Kurds (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0810867512. 
  11. Lur - History and Cultural Relations
  12. Frye, Richard N. (1983). Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, Part 3, Volume 7. Beck. p. 29. ISBN 978-3406093975. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Grugni, V; Battaglia, V; Hooshiar Kashani, B; Parolo, S; Al-Zahery, N et al. (2012). [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399854 "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians"]. PLoS ONE 7 (7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252 . PMC 3399854 . PMID 22815981 . http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399854. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Wells, R. Spencer et al. (2001). [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=56946 "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity"]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98 (18): 10244–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098 . PMC 56946 . PMID 11526236 . http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=56946. 
  15. Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner P J, Lin A A, Arbuzova S, Beckman L E, de Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, et al. (2000) Science 290:1155–1159
  16. Underhill P A, Passarino G, Lin A A, Shen P, Foley R A, Mirazon-Lahr M, Oefner P J, Cavalli-Sforza L L (2001) Ann Hum Genet 65:43–62
  17. Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; MacCioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas et al. (2004). [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1181965 "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area"]. The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295 . PMC 1181965 . PMID 15069642 . http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1181965. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Grugni, V; Battaglia, V; Hooshiar Kashani, B; Parolo, S; Al-Zahery, N et al. (2012). [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399854 "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians"]. PLoS ONE 7 (7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252 . PMC 3399854 . PMID 22815981 . http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399854. 
  19. Edmonds, Cecil (2010). East and West of Zagros: Travel, War and Politics in Persia and Iraq 1913-1921. p. 188. ISBN 9789004173446.